Śiva / Rudrā across Vedas to Itihāsa

Adi:yogi at Isha Institute of Inner Sciences, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India

The first hymns to Rudra in Rig Veda 1.43 is a declaration and encompass the entirety of Rudra – that He is a Divine Contradiction and a “conscious knower”. The hymns say He is “fierce/mighty”, then in contradiction, they call him “pleasant with beneficent heart”. He is “the resort/lord to all hymns/songs”, He is “the resort/lord of all yajñá/sacrifice”, and “He is bliss”. In conclusion, the hymn addresses Rudras as the family of immortals possessing Amṛta/Soma and this Soma is the home to Supreme Truth (ṛtasya). So, what is this Supreme Truth? As the hymn says, it is “ṛta“, meaning the entire Cosmic Principle/Truth. This Supreme Truth of Immortality is explained in pristine detail in Śatarudrīya/Çatarudriya of Sukla Yajur Veda. This is the first homage to Rudra-Soma sung by Maharśi Kaṇva Ghaura in Rig Veda Mandala 1 Sukta 43. And as we go deeper, we will see the complete assimilation of Soma, Agni, Mitra-Varuna, Vayu, and more.

tavyase = mighty/strong
Shamtamam Hruday = pleasant or beneficent heart
gātha-patim = resort to all hymns/songs
medha-patim = the resort of Yajñá/Sacrifice/Oblations
śam-yoḥ sumnam = bliss/ānandam
pra-jāḥ amṛtasya = immortals family possessing the elixir (amṛta)
parasmin dhāman ṛtasya = home to the highest truth (ṛtasya)
Please Note: Both terms “ṛtasya” and “amṛtasya” are synonymously used, soma is also used as its replacement occasionally.

Rig Veda 1.43

 Thou, Oh Agni, art Rudra, the Asura of the mighty sky
Rudra, lord of the sacrifice

Kṛṣṇa Yajur Veda Taittirīya Saṃhitā 1.3.14, 1.4.11

ṛtāvṛdha: the supreme form of truth and immortality”

Thou art the beginning and thou art the end of the Vedas, thou art the Gāyatri and thou art OM. Thou art the fire upon which the sacrificial butter/ghee is poured. Thou art he who pours the ghee. Thou art he in honor of whom the ghee is poured, thou art the butter itself that is poured. Thou art those section of Brahmanas that are called Trisuparna, thou art all the Vedas, thou art the section called Śatarudrīya in the Yajushes/Yajur. Thou art holiest of holies, auspicious of auspicious things. Thou animatest the inanimate body. Thou art the Chit that dwell in the human form.

Mahābhāratam Moksha Dharma Parva Section 285

In this discussion let us talk about the following topics. Please note that this is a research paper, hence is not suitable for casual reading as it presents meticulous details.
1. Darshanas (view/witness) and how Rudra emulates from Rig Veda to Yajur and Atharva Veda and its lineage in Upaniṣhads and its destination in Itihāsa.
2. Rudras and Maruts of Vedas, their appearance, their association with immortality and liberation.
3. Why is Rudra a total contradiction? What is the difference between Rudra and Śiva of the Vedas?
4. Who are Soma, Uma, Rodasi, Agni, Mitra, and Varuna, and how are they associated with Rudra?
5. Who is the Dakshina Murti of Vedas?
6. The birth of Rudras and Gāyatrī. How many Rudras are there? What is Ashtamurti?
7. Why is Rudra/Śiva defined as the un-manifest or “that which is not”?
8. What is Śrī Rudram, Rudra Prashana & Śatarudrīya/Çatarudriya?
9. What is Liṅga? Who is īśvara? Why is Śiva considered the father of all and The Destroyer?

Flow of this discussion

We will start with the Rig Veda, take various literary titles/concepts, and co-relate them with Yajur Vedas and Atharva Veda. Using this link we will find the destination of these concepts in the Upaniṣhads and consequently in the Itihāsa, both the Mahābhāratam and Vaśiṣṭha Ramayana. We will not use the Puráńas as the basis, but we will see if these concepts do happen to land in them. Please note: in Vedas, Rishis (Ṛṣi) use vocabulary in three variations based on the context of the hymn. These three variations are – first, the physical level, meaning the material plane of reality where all beings reside this is called adhibhautika; second, the divinity in association to a Deva called adhidaivika; and finally, the yogic level, meaning the union with consciousness (cit) called ādhyātmika. Yoga has two layers – the inquisitive layer, like the Vedāntic synopsis, and the mechanics, like the kriyas (actions) used for Sadhana (practice). These mechanics are found both in Śiva Tantras and Patanjali Yoga Sutras, but we will not go into the details of these two literary works, as our primary focus will be on Vedas.

Please Note: RV = Rig Veda Śākala Śākhā Saṃhitā, KYV = Kṛṣṇa Yajur Veda, TS = Kṛṣṇa Yajur Veda Taittirīya Saṃhitā, VS = Sukla Yajur Veda Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā TA = Kṛṣṇa Yajur Veda Taittirīya Āraṇyaka, AV = Atharva Veda Shaunaka Saṃhitā, AB = Aitareya Brahmāṇa, KA = Kaṭha Āraṇyaka, SB = Śatapatha Brahmāṇa, TB = Kṛṣṇa Yajur Veda Taittirīya Brahmāṇa, MS = Maitrāyaṇī Saṃhitā, KB = Kausitaki Shankhyayana Brahmāṇa, GS = Grihya Sutra of Paraskara Sukla Yajur Veda, GB = Rig Veda Gopatha Brahmāṇa, BS = Rig Veda Baskala Śākhā Saṃhitā

Darshanas : View points to witness ṛta (Cosmic Principle/Truth)

The Vedic view (Darshana) foresees the entire Creation and its Cosmic Phenomenon (ṛta) through the process called Yajñá, hence Vedas are not commandments. Vedas are illustrious homages and processes encapsulated in a poetic construct. On the other hand, the Vedāntic view is through the concept of inquisition, explaining the metaphysical aspects of Vedas. Yoga, however, views the union of the self with ṛta using various mechanisms. Yogis seek practical tools and methods to remove the cloud of ignorance so that the Cosmic Phenomenon (ṛta) will automatically present itself. Sankhya foresees ṛta as a cosmic duality of Consciousness and Energy, which is Puruṣa & Prakṛti. Itihāsa is for us to find role models and real-life situations so that we can use them as examples. Finally, the Puráńic view is the iconification of these Vedic concepts and surrendering oneself in their glory; this surrender is called Bhakti. Each Puráńa iconified one Divine aspect of Veda as a WHOLE and all-inclusive supreme so that a focused path is laid out for the seeker based on one’s temperament and inherent traits. Though there are more than a hundred schools of thought expounded in detail by Mādhavācārya, our discussion revolves around Veda, Vedānta, Yoga, and Itihāsa.

Preface

In summary, the Vedāntic and Yogic Darshana state that, out of infinite possibilities of Brahman arises a throbbing or vibration (Śakti), the concept of creation and its preservation emerges from this as a thought, this concept is titled Vishnu (Viṣṇu) – meaning that which is “all-pervasive” or that which “encompasses everything”. Hence Viṣṇu is an aspect of Cit Śakti (cit:śakti) and so the entirety of creation becomes Viśvām. In Sanskrit, “Viś” or “Viśta” means that which enters or permeates, hence the title Viṣṇu or ŚipiViṣṭa. Sri Aurobindo famously calls Viṣṇu the space or canvas in which all inhabitants flourish, while Śiva is the auspiciousness that is a natural occurrence untouched by the temporary realities created by Prakṛti. Shiva is Su:Mangalam, and the force or innate indweller of all is Rudra. In the Vedas, it is Prajapathi who is the instigator of creation through the process called Yajñá. He is the owner and the sponsor of the Yajñá, the Brahmana section of Vedas is full of his exploits in instigating creation in diverse forms hence Śakti (resonance) is his daughter. Knowing ṛta and bringing out the amṛta is Satyam – knowing this, realizing this, is Sundaram (the ever blissful joy). Hence “Satyam Śivam Sundaram”. Let us elaborate with a question, that which pervades everything – is it ominous or auspicious? It is auspicious, this concept is called Śiva, and the encompassing nature is called Viṣṇu, the force that propels creation is Rudra, the vibration is called Śakti, the mind and the ruler of the individual’s psychology is Indra, the life-force is Vayu, the brilliance is Surya, the transmutation is Agni, speech is Sarasvatī AB3.1.2 and Vāk which in return is also Agni as He is the Priest(Hotr), and variation/flavor/sweetness of Rudra is the Immortal Soma. Now, let us elaborate on each aspect of this summary in detail, with its origin in the Vedas.

The Viṣṇu of the Puráńas is an aggregated personification of Śakti, Indra, Brahmā and Surya (including many other Vedic Solar Deities called Ādityas), whereas Śiva, thought to be associated with Rudra, Soma, Agni, Varuna, Mitra, Vayu, and Maruts in the Vedic realm, remains a total enigma. Across the literature, we see various sages, Ṛṣi, Asuras, Devatas, Avataras, and many prominent personalities establishing Liṅgas. Historical evidence like the Vrātya seals and Liṅga found in the Indus Valley have been unearthed across diverse lands. In this research, let us not take the historic approach; rather, focus on the literary indications and link them across various schools (Vedic Śākhās).

Confining the aspect of Śiva to just a single concept is impossible; in short, the essence (tatva) of Śiva is a paradox – we will see that soon. Śiva means “bliss”, “auspicious”, “foremost”, “un-manifested”, “raw”, “that which is not”; we will cover each of these aspects one by one with references, so the definition of Śiva/Rudra will evolve in this discussion. Śrī Śankaracharya, in Nirvana Shatakam, addresses Śiva as cit:ānanda:rūpa – meaning the essence of ānanda (supreme bliss) in Cit (Supreme Infinite Consciousness). If Śiva is cit:ānanda then His forever companion Uma is cit:śakti. If Śiva is a calm ocean, then Śakti is a ripple in that calm ocean. This ripple emerges from that ocean and then fades back into the same ocean. So, creation is a ripple, and all of Prakṛti is a resonance. Unlike sukha (happiness), which has a polar opposite called dukha (sadness), ānanda has no polar opposite, meaning it is a forever-state devoid of any polarity, irrespective of cit:Śakti being in action or repose (rest). Hence Śiva says to Uma: “I am the sea and you the wave, You are Prakṛti, and I Puruṣa. This beautiful reference to Śiva/Śivā being both the wave and still water, both the hasty/active/rapid and yet calm and auspicious is described in Sukla Yajur Veda Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā 16.31. Hence, the Rishis ask Rudra to bestow that Anandam.

Now, in the Rig Veda, the word “Śiva” occurs more than 30 times, and all these are not personified names (swarūpa), they are various aspects of auspiciousness and pleasantness. For example, the hymn “Be Śiva with me” means be pleasant with me. The first homage to Rudra itself calls Him “pleasant or peaceful”, then all the synonymous titles follow – such as benevolent, caring, prosperous, glowing, gentle, knowledge & eloquence, love, bond, friendly, pure, generous, compassionate, pure/pious, and many more. In this way, Śiva: the auspiciousness pervades forever, hence the title “Sadā:Śivam”. As the famous Tamil Poet Thirumular, composer of Tirumurai says, Anbe Sivam (அன்பு சிவம்), meaning “Compassion/affection itself is Sivam”. In this, the all-pervasive entirety is Viṣṇu/Hari who manifests beyond kālá (time). Viṣṇu is the canvas for creation, whereas the creative idea is called Brahmā and holds the highest station sought out by Sages. In this creation manifest countless beings with a mind, this mind and its ‘Will’ becomes the ruler – which is Indra. Sri Aurobindo says, “the invisible force that propels creation from the lowest to the highest state of Viṣṇu is called Rudra”. Eventually, everything dissolves or assimilates back to the forever state of bliss that is Śiva. With the above statement are we concluding that Śiva is only an adjective? It’s not up to us to make such assumptions, it is Veda that has to make such a declaration, exploring this will be one of our quests to seek the evolution of Śiva and Rudra, but unlike common understanding, Rudra is not a name, nor a title given to a single person, Rudra is a concept and a phenomenon and so is Śiva, and we will see that soon. Hence, all these concepts are beautifully iconified into the spectacular realm of Itihāsa and Puráńas.

Rudra / Marut

Let us start with the Maruts:

को वो वर्षिष्ठ आ नरो दिवश्च ग्मश्च धूतयः ।1.37.6
Which of thy greatest (वर्षि॑ष्ठ॒ / varṣiṣṭhaḥ) among the masculine beings (न॑रो) among Divine lokas (दि॒वश्च॒) and of Earth (ग्मश्च॑) you are the envoy (धूतयः)
Note: varṣiṣṭhaḥ is a derivative of Sriṣṭhaḥ (foremost/pure). naraḥ here does not mean human (mānuṣaḥ referred in the very next sloka), it is a masculine representation of being. 
नहि वः शत्रुर्विविदे अधि द्यवि न भूम्यां॑ रिशादसः युष्माकमस्तु तविषी तना युजा रुद्रासो नू चिदाधृषे ||1.39.4
Neither (नहि वः) in heavenly realms nor earthly (भूम्य) (light and dark द्यवि ) you have none (नहि वः) higher (अधि) as your enimy/master of maruts (रिशाद). You are (युष्माक) self caring and mighty (तविष) roring fierce (तना) and steady (युजा). Oh of Rudra-clan (रुद्रासो ) undefied (नू चिद +धृषे) .

Rig Veda 1.37.6 / 1.39.4

Now, let us take a look at Rudra from the Rig Veda:

श्रेष्ठो जातस्य रुद्र श्रियासि तवस्तमस्तवसां वज्रबाहो ।पर्षि णः पारमंहसः स्वस्ति विश्वा अभीती रपसो युयोधि ॥2.33.3
Foremost/predominant/best (श्रेष्ठो ) Rudra (रुद्र ), brilliant/prosperous (श्रिया) of all backgrounds (जातस्य), the supreme/mightiest of the mighty (तवस्तमस्तवसां = तवः ऽतमः । तव-साम्), wielder/holder of thunder/lightning (वज्र-बाहो ) | none other than you (णः) is the best saviour/liberater (पर्षि ) from highest misfortune (पारम् +अंहसः) or attacks (अभीति), forever (विश्वा) bestow wellbeing (स्वस्ति), keep us away / take us to the other side (युयोधि ) from calamities and ailments (रपसो ) 2.33.3
Please note: the above landed in Kausitaki Shankhyayana Brahmana 25.13 of Rig Veda wherein Rudra is called the best and oldest among divinities.

इमा रुद्राय सथिरधन्वने गिरः कषिप्रेषवे /क्षिप्रेषु देवाय सवधाव्ने | अषाळ्हाय सहमानाय वेधसे तिग्मायुधाय भरता शृ॒णोतु॑ -नः ||7.46.1
We sing to that/thy (इमा =ayám) Rudra (रुद्रा), holder of strong/firm bow (स्थिर +धन्व), with fast arrows (क्षिप्रेषु), that destroy/devour, oh Divine (देवाय) dependent on none/self reliant/by one’s own will (सव-धाव्ने). You are wise, none can overcome/conquer you (अषाळ्ह्) yet you are calm, patient and wise (सहमानाय), oh gracious and caring one (वे॒धसे॑) with precise/sharp weapons (तिग्मायुध), hear our plea (शृ॒णोतु॑) 7.46.1

स हि क्षये॑ण॒ क्षम्य॑स्य॒ जन्म॑नः॒ साम्रा॑ज्येन दि॒व्यस्य॒ चेत॑ति 7.46.2
Together/towards (स) come to us/bestow (हि) of firm/eternal owner (क्षये॑+ण॒) over Earthly realms (क्षम्य॑+स्य॒) and its beings (जन्मन्) and with universal/celestial sovereignty (साम्राज्य), oh heavenly divine (दिव्यसं) consciousness/inner heart/indweller (चेतस् ) 7.46.2

Please note: सहमाना is a versatile term that can mean calm, intelligent or victorious. अ-सहमान means impatient, because अ is a negation. It can also mean proud and confident. शृ॒णोतु॑ is pronounced as śrnótu and with the root words śru+na+tu meaning “hear us”. Some slokas also write it as सणोतु॑, which is not correct.हि is a root word that means “to come down to bestow” in a spiritual sense. For example हि+त to bestow wellbeing. चेत-ति/चेतस् pronounced as cétati, with root word cit meaning supreme consciousness; citta is individual consciousness.

Rig Veda 7.46.1/2

Please take note of the consistency of concepts and attributes of Rudra across multiple Vedas Śākhās.

The Vedas sing about Rudras/Maruts as infinite in numbers and immortal1, free-spirited, mountain-dwelling2 (of Mūjavant/Girisha), fierce warriors, vehement and hero clan VS16.8-11. They hold the most powerful weapons VS16.14 including the famous bow called the PinakaTS4.5.5. They possessed tools, riches, unparalleled to any3. Hymns proclaim that they are indestructible “ānirhatebhyoKY4.5.9 and none mightier than Rudras4 as they possess infinite-strength/omnipotent “ananta-śuṣmāḥ” RV1.64.10. Rudras (rudrébhis or rudrésu) are the only Divinities in the Vedas to possess a multitude of precise and powerful weapons. Atharva Veda speaks of Rudra’s golden bows and weapons flying abroad like guided missiles in the direction he desires AV11.2.12. The only other Divinity who comes close to possessing multiple weapons is Indra; He too has a weapon common to Rudra, which is the lightning (Asani). These hymns define Rudras and Maruts as Earth-shaking clans feared by all lokas as they could create fires, bring rain (nourishment and lords of food RV2.1.6), hunts like predators, and attacks in thousands, and kill in hundreds AV11.2.12 causes lightning and thunder5, and make rain in deserts RV1.38.7. Hence he is called the Tempest God, and also has the title Aśani given to Rudra in Brahmāṇa-1 of Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā 8.1.3.6. Rudras are the only Divinities feared greatly by Rishis, and since the Vedas revolve around Yajñá, the aspect of fear is seen in the discipline and devotion of the Yajamana and Adhvaryu, meaning the one hosting and the one performing the Yajñá and the one properly chanting the mantras, else Rudra brings forth His wrath and consumes themTS1.6.7. 1: [RV10.93.4/1.43, AV11.2.3] 2: [RV5.41.11, TS4.5.5, VS3.61-63] 3: [RV1.64, VS10.20] 4: [RV1.19,2.33,5.59,7.46] 5: [RV1.38,2.33,5.58/59, KYV4.5.11, AV11.2.26]

On contrary, the sages praise Rudra as he is a cheerful, benevolent, wise, protecting, caring, and helpful clan with various tools, medicines1, riches, and vehicles like chariots, elephants, deer, and horses. Rudras are called “the physician among physicians”RV2.33.4 as he possesses thousands of well-needed medicines “सहस्रं ते स्वपिवात भेष॒जा”RV7.46.3, “dispeller of diseases” RV6.74.2 , and “dispeller of all sins/sorrows” RV2.33. They are prayed to for the protection of homes, cattle, farms, families, and children, for gifts like medicines, knowledge, and wealth, and for boons to bear children and find loving spouses VS3.57-59.
1: [RV1.43.4 TS4.5.10,RV2.33, AV2.27.6,AV19.10.6]

They are described as fair complexioned, youthful, handsome, with knotted/braided locks of black hair/fair head (kapardi & harikesha), strong build, dazzling, wearing deerskin (Krittivasãn) TS1.8.6/4.5.5 and ornaments 1. While the earliest mention of Rudra occurs in the Rig Veda, the Saṃhitās of the Kṛṣṇa Yajur Veda describes each of these features in great detail. By the time of the Atharva Veda, the complete assimilation of Agni with Rudra takes place. His Viṣvarūpam (omni-form) becomes pristine, leading to the pinnacle of His supremacy in the Svetasvatara Upaniṣhad. Coming back to the Rig Veda, the hymns repeatedly call the Rudras immortal as they possess the amṛta RV10.93.4/AV11.2.3 , and declare none to be young or elderly in their gana (group) RV2.33,5.58/59. In numerous hymns, Agni, Indra, Atithi, and others are urged to pass on their recommendations and pleas to Rudras/Maruts through Rudriya & Marutvatia (hymns dedicated to Rudra/Maruts respectively). On many occasions, various Divinities request the help of Rudras/Maruts as their strength is invincible in battle RV1:87,167. Indra will not overwrite the boons given by Maruts RV1:166 as they are his trusted friends and comrades AB1.3.20. There is a story in the Puráńas of how Viṣṇu led Maruts to a battle. Viṣṇu is also called Evaya Marut, meaning the fastest Marut RV5.87 and the title ŚipiViṣṭa (शिपिविष्ट) RV7.100.6 meaning the rays which permeate, this title is given to both Viṣṇu and Rudra TS4.5.5. Aitareya Brahmāṇa 1.30 states that Viṣṇu is the leader of the Maruts and both Ashivns and Varuna who themselves being Rudras follow His lead. The twin Ashvins are also considered as Rudras – “उत नो॑ रुद्रा चिन्मृळतामश्विना” RV10.93.7 and they move like the Rudra, hence the word Rudravartanī (रुद्रवर्तनी) which means to move forwards boldly/fiercely with brilliance like Rudra RV1.3.3. It’s because of this hymn many observed a commonality among the twin Ashvins with that of Rudras, and the most obvious trait of them being Physicians just like Rudra. Hence are considered as the children of Rudra. As Sri Aurobindo famously says, if Viṣṇu is the all-encompassing space/canvas, and Brahma is the Creative Idea, Rudra is the invisible force that propels Creation forward to the highest state/stride of Viṣṇu and bestows bliss/nourishment RV1.114 in their journey. When we say natural forces, it can be the force of knowledge, health, wealth VS10.20, desire, devotion, and joy; in contradiction, it is also the force of dissolution, or a force to restructure/reorganize things in the form of sickness, death, and calamities. Hence, sages feared Rudras the most, and sang for nourishment, shelter, and protection RV1.114.5; at the same time, prayed not to harm the lives of their families and cattle RV1.43/114,VS16.15 – like the hymn that says “Oh Rudra, harm us not, and abandon us not”RV7.46.5. This is why Rudra/Śiva is a total contradiction and highly unpredictable. Now, let us explore each of these aspects of Rudras in detail.
1: [RV1.43/114&2,5.42, VS16]

Please note: the term Rudra is singular, Rudras equates to Rudrébhis or Rudrésu (plural) or Rudrāsah or Rudrasya. Rudra is the all-encompassing omniscient concept whereas Rudras are the group of Divinities born to Rudra and Pṛśni or Rodasī. Hence Rudras are addressed as Maruts or Ganas.
Rudrā = denotes union with femininity and plurality for example the twin Ashvins. And this plurality expands to the Rudra clan including Maruts who are also called Rudras.
Rudravartanī = to move forward with fierceness, and brilliance like Rudra.
Rudratvam = of the nature of being Rudra.
Rudriya = the songs dedicated to appeasing Rudras.
Marutvatia = the songs dedicated to Maruts

Rudra is not a single entity or a person but a multitude of facets of manifestations. The reason will soon be addressed in our upcoming sections.

Maruts & Rudra : how are they different? 

Rudra is the father of Maruts “idam pitre marutām” RV1.114,2.33,1.64. And Rudra is always surrounded by Maruts who are generally denoted as Rudras themselvesRV8.63.12. These Maruts are, on occasions, said to be the children of Pṛśni “The Vedic Cow of Knowledge”. Hence, Maruts are addressed with three profound titles – as “vidatheṣu ā-bhuvaḥ” meaning “born in knowledge”, second “mahiṣāsaḥ māyinaḥ:citra-bhānavaḥ” meaning “the makers of māyā and of clear vision/light”, finally “pra-cetasaḥ viśva-vedasaḥ” meaning “conscious & omniscient” RV1.64.6-10. These three titles are not to be taken lightly. In the realm of the Vedas Soma, Vāk, and Pṛśni are three abstract concepts that secretly control the entirety of Vedic essence. Let us take a quick glance.

गौर्धयति मरुतां श्रवस्युर्माता मघोनाम् युक्ता वह्नी रथानाम् | यस्या देवा उपस्थे॑ व्रता विश्वे धारयन्ते सूर्यामासा दृशे कम् || 8.94.1-2
The Cow (Pṛśni is the cow of knowledge, and milk/Soma is wisdom/knowledge of immortality) (गौ + र्धयति dhā+yati), with Maruts (मरुतां) as sons of a mother who deserves our highest honor (श्रवस्यु + माता) and who is rich/abundant in knowledge and wisdom ( मघोनाम्  = मघ+वन्- म्), harnesses/yokes them (the vehicles) to move Creation forward (वह्नी – रथा-नाम्)|
In You/Pṛśni ( यस्या 3rd person), reside/dwell (उपस्थे) all Divinities/Vedic Devas (देवा) and have their eternal (विश्वे) virtuous function (व्रता) relied upon and borne by you (धारयन्ते); the Sun (सूर्या) and the Months/Moon (मासा) witness their (दृशे) role/actions (कम्)
Please note: In the Vedas (same as Śrīmad Bhagavādgita), the cow represents mother of knowledge, cow’s milk represents wisdom and essence, the bull represents might and lordship hence the title “Bablusãye bi vyadhibe”TS4.5.5, horses represent speed and momentum and energy, chariots/vehicles are the creation/body itself. वह्नी = वह् means vehicle and वह्नी -रथा means wagons attached to the chariot.

Rig Veda 8.94.1-2

Pṛśni is also a name of the wife of Prajāpati, which is also correct as Prajāpati is the Yajamana (the one performing the Yajñá), but we will soon explore the overlap of Prajāpati and Rudra. Pṛśni is also the name of the wife of one among the Saptarishi (the 7 primordial divine sages). Maruts are also said to be the children of Rodasī (consort of Rudra) and the same hymn distinctly addresses Rudra as their father RV5.57. Rudra is not necessarily a single entity or a group because of the unique nature of Rudra to manifest across various concepts and divinities, this will become evident in our upcoming sections. Though Rodasī was mentioned, a single entity called Śiva as a single Rudra is yet to be introduced in our discussion. Since Rudra is the raw and un-manifested invisible force, with the knowledge and immortal wisdom came the Maruts as the individual forces of nature wielded by Rudra. These forces cause the evolution of creation and favorite to Indra in the destruction of VritraAB3.20. THE RUDRA is not as a person but as “The Concept of Sovereignty and All-Encompassing Cosmic form” which we will cover in detail along with the personified Shiva of later literature. Hence, Rudras can save us, at the same time, cause destruction to restructure things in Creation, this is why Rudras are all-encompassing form and are not limited to fixed attributes/actions and the Maruts are called the arrows/missiles of Rudra.

Gana / Ganapati / Brahmānaspathim

The Rig Veda sings: “Oh Courageous (तवेषं) band/group (गणं) of Maruts RV5.58. गणं (gana) means group, and these groups and their professions are explained in detail in Śrī Rudram of Kṛṣṇa Yajur Veda Taittirīya Saṃhitā 4.5. The leader of these groups is called Ganapati (gana+pati), meaning lord/abode of all groups. The Rig Veda also addresses the Maruts as vidatheṣu ā-bhuvaḥ, meaning born in knowledge, and brahmānaspathim, meaning lord/abode of knowledge RV1.38.13. Brahmānaspathim is a very unique title in the Vedas assigned to a separate class of Divinities. Sri Aurobindo defines brahmāna as the Vedic Aksharas (word) and among all Aksharas अ/a” is considered the foremost, hence AUM begins with . In Śrīmad Bhagavādgita Śrī Kṛṣṇa says “Among words I am the word . Panini, the author of Sanskrit Grammar says, Maruts are Akshara of Varnamala (an eternal string of sounds), and Sukla Yajur Veda Śatarudrīya explains how Rudra and Gayatri Akshara emerged from Yagna. Sri Aurobindo includes both Brihaspati and Brahmā as brahmānaspathim. Similarly, T.V. Kapali Sastry, renowned student of Sri Aurobindo and Vedic commentator, says Ganapati – “Lord of all Ganas/Maruts” – is that brahmānaspati. Interestingly, the Rig Veda titles Viṣṇu as Evaya Marut RV5.87, meaning the “fastest Marut” who leads the Maruts into battle. This is a very interesting linkage of titles, like puzzles that fit together. Though Rudra Ganas are mentioned along with their leader, we are yet to find a reference of one with an Elephant face. Viṣṇu being Evaya Marut also declares Himself to be ŚipiViṣṭa (शिपिविष्ट) RV7.100.6 meaning the rays which permeate, this title is given to both Viṣṇu and Rudra TS4.5.5. Aitareya Brahmāṇa 1.30 states that Viṣṇu is the leader of the Maruts and both Ashivns and Varuna who themselves being Rudras follow His lead.

Is there such a reference where Ganas are attributed to Maruts?

तम उ नूनं तविषीमन्तम एषां सतुषे गणम मारुतं नव्यसीनाम |य आश्वश्वा अमवद वहन्त उतेशिरे अम्र्तस्य सवराजः ||
तवेषं गणं तवसं खादिहस्तं धुनिव्रतम मायिनं दातिवारम |मयोभुवो ये अमिता महित्वा वन्दस्व विप्र तुविराधसो नॄन ||

Indeed we praise (एषां) thy mighty (तविषी) gang (गण) of Maruts today (नव्यसी)| Oh fierce (अमवद) racers of horses and chariots (आश्वश्वा) like the wind (वहन्त), bringing your containers filled with elixir of immortality (उतेशिरे अम्र्तस्य), you are dependent on none, self ruling (सवराजः)||
Oh courageous (तवेषं) band/group (गणं) of Maruts, adorned with bracelets/rings (खादिहस्तं), cometh with roaring sounds (धुनिव्रतम) of victory, bestower (दातिवारम) of all magical gifts (मायिनं) |
We sing to the brilliance, like fire (मयोभुवो) adorned with infinite might (अमिता महित्वा). We praise and worship (वन्दस्व), oh ever willing and passionate ones (विप्र) with roaring sounds (तुविराधसो). We follow you, oh leader (नॄन).

Rig Veda 5.58

Appearance of Rudra: Macro (Part 1)

Sadasiva Vishvarupam,
Thanumalayan Temple-Suchindram, Tamil Nadu

Ṛṣis of the Vedas were very explicit about the appearance of Rudra and the commonality with that of Puranic Śiva. While the first declaration to Rudra is seen in the Rig Veda, the Saṃhitās of Atharva & Yajur Vedas gave utmost detail on His features and nature. To start with the first declaration to Rudra In Rig Veda and explore this commonality across various Vedic Śākhās. Rig Veda says: “He is brilliant shines like the Sun, dazzling like gold, and the best of the divine and of Vasu”RV1.43.5, so the keyword here is “brilliance/ shine“. Now, as we move across Vedas Taittirīya Saṃhitā 4.5.5 says: “Oh lord of mountains, whose brilliance/rays which permeates”, further he is called Hiraṇya (हिरण्य) meaning the Golden/brilliant one. Both Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā 16.11 and Taittirīya Āraṇyaka 10.22.40 proclaim that He is of Hiraṇyabhahavey meaning “he with golden/brilliant shoulders”, Hiraṇyarūpaya meaning “golden form”, Hiraṇyapathaye meaning “abode of all brilliance”, and finally Tvishīmat (त्विषीमते) meaning brilliant and dazzling one. Caraka-Katha Āraṇyaka concurs with the above by calling him ādityavarna meaning Sun-colored-luster. So, 4 different Vedic Śākhās described Rudra in an exact way and this landed in the Upaniṣhads consequently आदित्यवर्णं SU3.8. Let’s move to the second shade of Rudra, Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā 16.6 calls him Aruna (अरुण) meaning the yellowish-redness color of the sky during dawn. Another famous title Kṛṣṇapingala TA10.23.41.23, meaning tawny or orangish-yellow skin similarly both Rig Veda 2.33 and Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā 16.6-17 which addresses him as barúḥ (बभ्रु / बभ्लुश) meaning tawny-brown/red with beautiful lips. In contradiction to the above two shades, He is also addressed as śukra (शुक्र) in Rig Veda, meaning clear/white/opaque RV2.33 – hence the name Śukreśvara Liṅga of Varanasi. This coincides with Mahabharatam wherein Rśi Vyāsa says “Since he is of the form or color of smoke, therefore he is called DhurjjatiDP203. Apart from these shades He has a blueish/white neck called nīlakanthāya/Nelagriva/Śitikaṇṭha sometimes called as Srikanta (नीलकण्ठ/नीलग्रीव/शितिकण्ठ) TS4.5/VS16.7/28 and bluish belly AV15.1,VS 16.7,KYV4.5 which is again consistent across various Vedic Śākhās. Among the 70 Svayambhu Liṅgas, Kālanjara takes the 32nd position in the list and is called Nilakanta (blue neck), and Vimaleśvara Liṅga takes the 33rd position which is called Śrīkaṇṭha. Atharva Veda and both Sukla and Kṛṣṇa Yajur shared a similar hymn in which they addressed Rudra as Nīlalohita (नीललोहित) 1 meaning the one with blue and reddish-orange color, similar to the sky during the sunset (as shown in the image). The latter two called him Vilohita (विलोहित) meaning deep fiery red. Latter literature gave much prominence to the term Nīlalohita denoting the union of Prakṛti and Puruṣa which gave rise to Nīlalohitāgama, one among the 28 Siddhāntāgama. With so many detailed yet diverse descriptions, how does one justify so many hues/colors? Atharva Veda 15.1.8 goes deeper in saying that, Blue (Nila) represents how He overwhelms the evil and, red (lohita) represents Him inflicting pain to those who dislike him. The summary is each Hue is based on his role and action, meaning in deep meditative states he is White, in fierce action he is Red, in union with Shakti in the act-of-creation He is blue and so on. Hence Rig Veda gave him the title Pururūpam RV2.33.9 meaning Multihued, this is how Rśis of the Vedas concur with each other. If we take a deep look into these colors of Rudra they are all the colors of Fire and Sun and Sky during various times of the day. This close relation with Sun (Surya) represents both His inner radiance and outer brilliance (ādityavarna) and it is this Sun that Rishis ask Rudra RV2.33.1,KA-III-222. In the next section, we will see the deep relation with Surya both on the physical plain (His eyes and the heart) and Himself becoming The Sun by obtaining the title īśhana SB6.1.3.
1: [VS16.46/TS4.8.10/AV15.1.7,MB-KarnaParva34]

Sunset (Sandhya) with Nilalohita / Nila Rohita offset (Photographer Deepti Sri, Newark NJ 12/04/2021 4:50pm)
Dakshina Murti
Asian Art Museum of San Francisco, B61S1+ L2012.0801.015

The most distinctive attribute of Śiva is His long hair that held the Great Ganga, but what about Rudra? Vedas gave three distinctive titles, they said Harikeśa (हरिकेशेभ्य) YV4.5.2 MB1.17.11 and Vyuptakeśa (व्युप्तकेश) and Kaparddi (कपर्दिने) YV4.5.5. Harikeśa has many meanings, like self-Luminant, golden-head/hair, or fair-headed which means the one who is unprejudiced towards all beings. The most interesting part is that Indra is also addressed as Harikeśa RV10.96.5. This title has many compounds (Sandhi) in Sanskrit like Hari+keśa or Hari+ka+iśa. Another description of His hair is Kapardi, meaning knotted/braided locks of hair RV1.114,AV 2.27. Finally, Vyuptakeśa is another unique title that is found in both the Maitrāyaṇī and Taittirīya Śākhā of Kṛṣṇa Yajur Veda. Vyuptakeśa means the one whose hair is disheveled, unmaintained, and ungroomed. Vyuptakeśa is also mentioned in an event from Mahābhāratam Dhrona Parva 202 in regards to a child in the lap of Devi Uma. This child is addressed by Lord Brahma with the title Shambu who is nonother than Maheshwara himself for the sake of Uma. This is why Rudras nor Shiva are never into Charm or appeal, whereas Viṣṇu and Devi are called Alankara:Priya meaning those who allure in decorations and charm, but Shiva is called Abhisheka:Priya and is always wet or covered with Bhasma (Ash). One can find Shiva Liṅgas is the most unconventional and bizarre of locations. Many are found in open environments like Seashores, rivers and river banks, waterfalls, icy caves, and more. Among the 70 Svayambhu Liṅgas Jāngala takes the 29th position in the list and is called Kaparddi. As we move into Atharva Veda, He is called “nī́laśikhaṇḍena” meaning black tufts of hair or can also be understood as dark-haired chest AV11.2.7. Mahābhāratam Dhrona Parva 203 brings light to a unique title called Vyomakesha (व्योमकेश), meaning “Hair that covers the sky and heavens” and it’s this hair that held Ganga from the heavens (Svarga). Interestingly Viṣṇu is called Keshava (केशव).

Rudra, in the Vedas, is associated in deep conjunction with Soma KYV 7.1,VS16, and Agni as one of his natures or epithets, and on several occasions with Surya, this coincides with the title Trayambakam or Virūpākṣa, meaning three-eyed or odd-eyed, and the celebrated title Somasuryagni Lochanaya, meaning the one with Soma, Surya, and Agni as his three eyes. Atharva Veda 15th Kanda 18th Prayāya, famously known as Vrātyas Suktam, says “oh Vrātya, as for this right eye is the distant Sun/Āditya, so for the left eye is the Moon/Soma”. But what about the Agni of the 3rd eye which burnt Kamadeva? Caraka-Katha Āraṇyaka III-222 specifies that Rudras eyes are the fire, one is the fire on Earth and the other is the fire of the Sun, and when His eyes are praised, then the Yajamana’s offspring are not born blind. The title trayambakam, has many contextual derivatives but the meaning is straightforward though it’s interpreted differently these days. With regard to physical appearance, it means three-eyes RV 7.59,TS4.5.4,AV11.2.2, but many western scholars attribute it to harvest season (Ritu) using the term Ambaka. Some also consider using the term Ambi to represent Autumn. But this is not how the Vedic chant of Ghana Patana operate, the chant says “त्रि अम्बकं इति त्रयम्बकं. So, it’s not Ambi+kam, nor Ambā+kam, nor Ambaka, the vocabulary section below should clarify this. Later in Kṛṣṇa Yajur Veda, He is called AmbikaPathi, so Ambakam is different from Ambika. Sri Valmiki Ramayana Itihāsa 6.93.38 uses the same reference to Rudra by addressing him as “trayambakasya” denoting three eyes. Atharva Veda calls him “the thousand-eyed”AV4.28.3/11.2. On multiple occasions, He is referred to as the one with Virūpākṣa, meaning the one with odd eyes TA10.23.1 or thousands of eyes VS16.8/AV11.2.7. But it never mentions him having an eye on his forehead.

Vocabulary: Ambā/Amba means mother. In southern regions it Amma, so the ‘म्ब’ became just ‘म्’. The short form of Amma is just “Mā” the preceding ‘ā’ became silent in regular usage, but mātā denotes respect. Hence the title Uma = ‘U’ + ‘Ma’ or the title Sambha = ‘Sa’ + ‘Ambā‘ (meaning along with Ambā). Rig Veda itself in its 5th mandala uses the term त्रिमाता – trimātā́ to denote three mothers so there is no need for Triambakam to become 3 mothers or 3 sisters. Further South of India Amma became Amman/Amme (Hence the song “Amme Narayani”). Ambā is a respected term given to women irrespective of age. Ambi is a term used with affection towards a mother or daughter, since Uma is a princess she was called with a derivative Ambika (Ambi + Ka). Ambaya/Ambada and Ambala/Ambali are all derivatives given to the term mother based on the context. Since the prevalence of Devi Uma is high in Kashi the King of Kashi named his 3 daughters: Amba, Ambika, Ambalika. Ambi+ka is given to sister, and Amba+lika is given to mother. Hence, ambakam denotes eyes and has no relevance to the mother. It’s only when you convert the sandhi as Amba+ka+am or Amba+kam which many try to interpret in relation to mother, but contextually there is no reason for such a sandhi (decoupling) in the context of this hymn especially when there is a term trimātā́ used in Rig Veda. Hence Vedic Ghana Patana chant says “त्रि अम्बकं इति त्रयम्बकं. Amba can also denote water in a few cases.

Having explored the vocabulary with various derivations and Ghana Patana, is there any explicit reference that can conclude the title trayambakam and its origin? Well, Rśi Vyāsa explains the significance of 3 and its association to Rudra in Mahabratam Drona Parva 203, the following should clarify any remnant questions:

And since Maheswara by means of his two eyes closed (in meditation), created through sheer force of will the third eye on his forehead, he is for that reason called the trayambakam
And since three goddesses adore and have recourse to that Lord of the universe, viz., Firmament, Water and Earth, he is for that reason called Tryamvaka.
The Ordainer of the three worlds (Triloka), he is the sole refuge of the three worlds….
 O son of Kunti, seek the protection of that boon-giving Lord of the universe, the lord of Uma, that God of three eyes (trayambaka), that destroyer of Daksha’s sacrifice….
When, however, the three cities came together in the firmament, the lord Mahadeva. pierced them with that terrible shaft of his, consisting of three knots. (Tripurantaka/Tripurari)….
And since the solar and the lunar rays of light that appear in the world are spoken of as the hair on the Three-eyed one, he is for that reason called Vyomakesa

Mahabratam Drona Parva 202-203
Mahadeva Vishwaroopam, 5th Century, Icon found in Mumbai, Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Vastu Sangrahalaya. Indian Archeological Survey: AKS.9955, CC BY-SA 4.0

So, how can one have so many hues/colors and so many physical forms and attributes? From Rig Veda to both Yajur Vedas, His form is Viṣvarūpam, meaning the cosmic form or the all-encompassing omni-form, and Pururūpam, meaning multiform/multihued, and Virūpam, meaning multifold altering forms and Vahurūpa meaning multi-formed RV2.33.10,TS4.5.4,TA10.23.1. It was Mahābhāratam which actually gave a definition to the term Viṣvarūpam by saying “since those Devas called the Viṣvadevas are in Him, He is for that reason called Viṣvarūpam, since with respect to the past, the future, and the present, that Divine has many forms, he is, on that account, called Vahurupa (many-formed).”AP161/DP202. Even with such consistency across Vedas and Itihāsa, Taittirīya Saṃhitā 4.5 elaborated the concept of all-encompassing aspect of Rudra with two more titles, they are: Bṛhat (बृहत्) = largest/all-encompassing and Saṃvṛddha (संवृद्ध) = ever-growing. Both Śrī Rudram and Śatarudrīya describe a furious form emerging out of Prajāpati. This furious anger is called Manyu, the ferocious aspect of Rudra with a hundred heads, a thousand eyes, and thousands of weapons. This matches perfectly with Kausitaki Brāhmaṇa 6 of Rig Veda wherein it describes Rudra as a thousand-eyed and arms with thousand weapons. This all-encompassing form of Rudra was very difficult to iconify into sculpture or painting, so two approaches were possible, first option was to show one body with many heads and hands, like the magnificent sculpture at Thanumalayan Temple in Suchindram, Tamil Nadu. The latter option was to depict one ‘being’ with various forms emerging out of it, like the Mahadeva Vishvaroopma icon found in Parel, Mumbai by the Indian Archeological Society, currently stored in Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Vastu Sangrahalaya Museum. After Nārāyaṇa Sukta and Śrīmad Bhagavādgita, Viṣṇu’s Viṣvarūpam took high prominence in its depiction. Alongside Rudra, Soma and Prajāpati shared the title of Viṣvarūpam, but Varuna is also addressed in a similar way RV7.34.

Since we have described various contradictory features, attributes, and forms, how can one visualize an image called Viṣvarūpam/all-encompassing omni-form – who is but an enigma – especially when Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā 16.44 says “homage to the one who is in the tempest, storms, in the hearts (Sun), in whirlpools, in deep wells, and in the very abysses”. Since the first declaration of Rudra in the Rig Veda, then the details in the Yajur Veda and the Atharva Veda gave rise to the final premise that landed in the Upaniṣhad (Svetasvatara one among the 18 primary Upaniṣhads), which says in Chap 3, sloka 11:

सर्वानन शिरोग्रीवः सर्वभूतगुहाशयः । सर्वव्यापी स भगवांस्तस्मात् सर्वगतः शिवः ॥ ११॥
All (सर्वा) heads, necks/faces (शिरो + ग्रीव) are you, as you are dwelling in all (सर्व) beings and their cores/hearts (सर्वभूतगुहाशय)| You are omnipresent/all-pervasive (सर्वव्यापी) in all divine forms (भगवांस्तस्मात्), all-encompassing in all (सर्व+गतः)
Please note: शिर+स्तस्  means forms of heads, and भगवां+स्तस् means divine forms.

Svetasvatara Upaniṣhad 3.11

Appearance of Rudra : Micro / Atomic / Subtle (Part 2)

We have seen the enormous physical and cosmic features of Rudra, but something that is omnipresent and the “indweller of all” gives rise to another unique title, an epithet of Śiva called Sūkṣma (सूक्ष्म), which means atomic and subtle. There is also another similar title called & Kaṇiṣṭha (कणिष्ठ) meaning smallest or youngest, but not same as Sūkṣma. Compared to all the physical descriptions we have discussed, the atomic and subtle characteristic is a total contrast. Our physical bodies are called Sthula, meaning gross/physical, in contrast, we also have the Sūkṣma Śarīra (subtle bodies) which constitutes various aspects like memory, intelligence, intellect, impressions, Guṇa, sensation, identity (ahankara), Vāsanā and more. These aspects are also known as Antahkarana. Yogic Śāstra has clear compartmentalization of thirty such facets of the subtle body. A human being (both physical and subtle body) is divided into layers called Kohsa, and the subtle body belongs to the Prāṇamāyā, Manomāyā, Vijnanmāyā, and Anandamāyā Koshas. Mṛtakeśvara is 31st among the 70 Svayambhu Liṅgas and is called Sūkṣma Liṅga. Among the 28 Siddhantagamas, there is one called Sūkṣmagama. Please note that Sūkṣmā (सूक्ष्मा) also applies to Śakti. The source of all this lies in Svetasvatara Upaniṣhad and Brhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad (two among the 18 primary Upaniṣhads), Please remember, in Vedas, atomic nature is the Principle of creation, not just limited to physicality. So, for once let’s start with primary Upaniṣhads and trace its root back to Vedic Āraṇyaka and Saṃhitās.

सूक्ष्मातिसूक्ष्मम् कलिलस्य मध्ये विश्वस्य स्रष्टारम् अनेकरूपम् विश्वस्य एकं परिवेष्टितारम् शिवं ज्ञात्वा अत्यन्तं शान्तिम् एति॥
Subtle beyond the subtle in the midst of the hurtling chaos, the creator of the universe who has many forms and being one encompasses all, known as the Benign, one comes exceedingly to the peace.

घृतात् परं मण्डम् इव अतिसूक्ष्मं शिवं सर्वभूतेषु गूढं ज्ञात्वा विश्वस्य एकं परिवेष्टितारं देवं ज्ञात्वा सर्वपाशैः मुच्यते॥4.16
like the cream (मण्डम् ) above (परं) the clarified butter (घृतात्)
the hidden within (गूढम् ) in all beings/existences (सर्व+भूतेषु ), Knowing (ज्ञात्वा ) him who is exceedingly (अति) subtle (सूक्ष्मं ) who is Sivam/the auspecious one (शिवं ) in all, knowing (ज्ञात्वा ) that divine (देवं ) who along (एकं ) encompasses all (विश्वस्य परिवेष्टितारं ), one is released (मुच्यते) from every bondage (सर्व+पाशैः ).

स्थूलानि सूक्ष्माणि बहूनि चैव रूपाणि देही स्वगुणैर्वृणोति।
क्रियागुणैरात्मगुणैश्च तेषां संयोगहेतुरपरोऽपि दृष्टः॥
Forms gross and to the most minute of forms, forms many,-the Spirit in body evolveth them all by his own nature in its working; by the law of action of his works & the law of action of the Spirit in man, by these he evolved them. But there is Another in Whom we behold Cause whereby all these meet together.

तत्कर्म कृत्वा विनिवर्त्य भूयस्तत्त्वस्य तत्त्वेन समेत्य योगम्‌।
एकेन द्वाभ्यां त्रिभिरष्टभिर्वा कालेन चैवात्मगुणैश्च सूक्ष्मैः॥
The Lord doeth works and resteth again from His works, one or two or three or eight He yoketh Himself with the Principle of things in their essence & with Time He yoketh Himself and with Self in its subtle workings.

Svetasvatara Upaniṣhad

कतमे रुद्रा इति दशेमे पुरुषे प्राणा आत्मैकादशस्ते॥
There (इति) are the types of Rudras (रुद्रा) that enter the Purusha/being (पुरुषे), ten are the Pranas that enter the 5 Karmindriyas and 5 Jnanindriyas and the 11th (एकादश) is the Atman/self/mind (आत्म)

Br̥hadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad 3.9.4

As we discussed above all beings have Sūkṣma Śarīra which are Prāṇamāyā, Manomāyā, Vijnanmāyā, and Anandamāyā Koshas (layer of subtle body). Brhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad just confirmed that the 10 Pranas and the Atman are Rudras. But is Rudra the indweller to all? Here is what Vedic Saṃhitās have to say:

मो वः किरिकेभ्यो देवाना हृदयभ्यो नमो विक्षीणकेभ्यो नमो॑ | विचिन्व॒त्केभ्यो नम आनिर्ह॒तेभ्यो नम आमीव॒त्केभ्यः|| 4.5.9
Salutations to the brilliant/dazzling (किरिके) indweller/heart (हृदयभ्यो) of all divinity (देवाना ), Salutations to the one who depletes/destroyer, Salutations to the dweller of holy, to Thoughtful/caring/intelligent (विचिन्व॒त्केभ्यो ), Salutations to the indestructible (आनि+र्हते+भ्यो) स्तु

हि श्रुतं गर्तसदं युवानं मृगन्न भीममुपहत्नुमुग्रम् 4.5.10.8

We sing (स्तु-हि) that which is heard by the Rishis (श्रुत) from their inner hearts/indweller (गर्तसदं) ever young/immortal (युवानं) when the beast of the wild ( मृग ) fearless (भीम ) assailant/taming the (उपहत्नु) the beast within (मुग्रम्).

Please note: Paśū means the animals/cattle which is tied or tamed whereas Mruga means that which is free in the wild.

Kṛṣṇa Yajur Veda Taittirīya Saṃhitā 4.5.9

स हि क्षये॑ण॒ क्षम्य॑स्य॒ जन्म॑नः॒ साम्रा॑ज्येन दि॒व्यस्य॒ चेत॑ति 7.46.2
Together/towards (स) come to us/bestow (हि) of firm/eternal owner (क्षये॑+ण॒) over Earthly realms (क्षम्य॑+स्य॒) and its beings (जन्मन्) and with universal/celestial sovereignty (साम्राज्य), oh heavenly divine (दिव्यसं) consciousness/inner heart/indweller (चेतस् ) 7.46.2

Rig Veda 7.46.2

We saw Upaniṣhads talking about Rudra being Sūkṣma Śarīra, and the indweller of Purusha and being “One without a second”. So, is Rudra still a single entity? In our minds, is Rudra still a persona, an icon, or a sub-concept part of a bigger concept? Is Rudra still a separate Divinity compared to other Divinities? What do Rishis (rśi) have to say when they are no more in conjunction with the physical process of Yajñá, meaning when they are in Āraṇyakas (in forests/wilderness/isolation) and with students sharing their Upaniṣad wisdom? Let’s check both Āraṇyaka and Upaniṣhad, however, there are many topics yet to be discussed, so until then let’s hold our conclusions and keep seeking.

सर्वो वै रुद्रस्तस्मै रुद्राय नमो अस्तु । पुरुषो वै रुद्रस्सन्महो नमोनमः । विश्वं भूतं भुवनं चित्रं बहुधा जातं जायमानं च यत् । सर्वोह्येष रुद्रस्तस्मै रुद्राय नमो अस्तु ॥ 10.24.42
Everything (सर्वो) is therefore (तस्मै) that (वै) Rudra (रुद्र) we surrender/ our salutations (नमो) so it be, said/concluded (अस्तु) | Purusha/consciousness (पुरुषो) itself is that (वै) Rudras delight (रुद्रस्सन्महो) to him we surrender/salutations again and again (नमो नमः) | All that is (विश्वं) and all beings (भूतं) and all celestials dimensions (भुवनं) and all the wonders (चित्रं) all possibilities and diversities (बहुधा) all that is born/all happening/ all existence (जातं) all that has come into being (जायमानं) is that (यत् =is that Rudra) | Entierity is controlled (सर्वोह्येष) Rudras delight (रुद्रस्सन्महो) to him we surrender/salutations (नमो) so it be, said/concluded (अस्तु) |

Taittirīya Āraṇyaka 10.24.42

The above exactly landing in Svetasvatara Upaniṣhad as follows:

ततः परं ब्रह्मपरं बृहन्तं यथानिकायं सर्वभूतेषु गूढम्‌।विश्वस्यैकं परिवेष्टितारमीशं तं ज्ञात्वाऽमृता भवन्ति॥3.7
Henceforth/moreover, further than (ततः परं) Greatness known to us/our personal Divine (बृहन्त) is Brahman/infinite that is further/superior (ब्रह्म+परं ) thought each enjoyed their own bodies/individuality (यथानिकायम्) He is the indweller hidden in all (सर्व+भूतेषु+गूढम् ) he along encompasses all entirety and is its authority (विश्वस्य+ एकं+ परिवेष्टितारम + ईशाम् ) knowing/realizing that one becomes amṛta/immortal (ज्ञात्वा+अमृताः )

एको हि रुद्रो न द्वितीयाय तस्थुर्य इमांल्लोकानीशत ईशनीभिः। प्रत्यङ्जनांस्तिष्ठति सञ्चुकोचान्तकाले संसृज्य विश्वा भुवनानि गोपाः॥ 3.2
There is (हि) The One (एको ) Rudrā (रुद्रो) and none (न) other than He, none can make Him second (द्विती) in being (याय) that is in existence (तस्थु:र्य) among the worlds( इमां:ल्लोका), He is the authority (ईशते) by His own authority (ईशनीभिः)| In all worlds/dimensions (भुवनानि) is His convolution and projection and guardians (संसृज् + ज्य + गोपाः) in entirety (विश्वा), He is established (तिष्ठति) in all beings (हे जनाः) as the indweller (प्रत्यङ्); and all beings (भूत्वा), at the time of final dissolution (अन्त:काले), become/withdraw into Him (सञ्चुकोच)

Please note: When we say “time of final dissolution” we need to refer to the source in Taittariya Aranyaka 10.18 wherein Rudra itself is TIME, hence the title “कालाय नमः”. Futher his titles enumerate as Mahakaal, kālāgnirudrāya qnd trikāgnikālāya

Svetasvatara Upaniṣhad 3.7/3.2

Let’s compare this statement from Katha Śākhā:

अङ्गुष्ठमात्रः पुरुषोऽन्तरात्मा सदा जनानां हृदये संनिविष्टः। तं स्वाच्छरीरात्प्रवृहेन्मुञ्जादिवेषीकां धैर्येण। तं विद्याच्छुक्रममृतं तं विद्याच्छुक्रममृतमिति ॥2.3.17
The Purusha, the Spirit within, who is no larger than the finger of a man is seated for ever in the heart of creatures; one must separate Him with patience from one’s own body as one separates from a blade of grass its main fiber. Thou shalt know Him for the Bright Immortal, yea, for the Bright Immortal.

Katha Upaniṣhad 2.3.17

Finally, let’s take notice of how all the above is consistent with both Mahabaratam Itihāsa and Maharśi Vaśiṣṭha’s Ramayana, also known as Yoga Vaśiṣṭham. Please take note of the contradiction that Rudra is:

Rishi Kasyapa said, ‘Rudra exists in the hearts of men. He destroys the bodies themselves in which he dwells as also the bodies of others. Rudra has been said to be like atmospheric visitations and his form is like that of the wind-gods. ~Shanti Parva 73

“The illustrious Rudra is Death’s self, the year becomes his bow; Kala Ratri the Death-night therefore, which is Rudra’s shadow” ~Karna Parva 34

Mahabaratam Shanti Parva 73 / Karna Parva 34

Rudra is the pure, spontaneous self-experience which is the one consciousness that dwells in all substances. It is the seed of all seeds, it is the essence of this world-appearance, it is the greatest of actions. It is the cause of all causes and it is the essence in all beings, though in fact it does not cause anything nor is it the concept of being, and therefore cannot be conceived. It is the awareness in all that is sentient, it knows itself as its own object, it is its own supreme object and it is aware of infinite diversity within itself.

This infinite consciousness can be compared to the ultimate subatomic particle which yet hides within its heart the greatest of mountains. It encompasses the span of countless epochs, but it does not let go of a moment of time. It is subtler than the tip of a single stand of hair, yet it pervades the entire universe. No one has seen its limits or boundaries.

Yoga Vaśiṣṭham 6.1.36 (Translation of Swami Venkateshananda page 377)

Now we should ask two simple questions, First, what does Rishi Vaśiṣṭha mean when he says above “No one has seen its limits or boundaries”? Well, Let’s go back to Svetasvatara Upaniṣhad 4.18:

यदाऽतमस्तान्न दिवा न रात्रिर्न सन्न चासच्छिव एव केवलः। तदक्षरं तत्सवितुर्वरेण्यं प्रज्ञा च तस्मात्प्रसृता पुराणी॥ 4.18
When there is no darkness, not day (न दिवा) nor night (न रात्रि), not being (न सत्) nor non-being/no basis for anything (न च असत्), an absolute singularity (एव केवलः), immutable/ unchangable/ unblemishable/ unaltered (तत् अक्षरम्), that the supreme light of the Creating Sun (तत् सवितुः वरेण्यम्) as its source (तस्मात्) all that is to be known and ancient (पुराणी प्रज्ञा) has come to be (प्रसृता) Svetasvatara Upaniṣhad 4.18

Svetasvatara Upaniṣhad 4.18

Second, what does Rishi Vaśiṣṭha mean when he says “It is subtler than the tip of a single strand of hair, yet it pervades the entire universe?” Both Vedas answered this for us by saying:

नमो ज्येष्ठाय च कनिष्ठाय च नमः पूर्वजाय चा परजाय च || 4.5.6
नमो॑ बृहते च वर्षीयसे च नमो वृद्धाय च संवृध्वने च ||4.5.5
Salutations (नमो) to one who is the eldest/oldest (ज्येष्ठाय) and to the one who is youngest/most subtle (कनिष्ठाय). Salutations to the one who is ancient/known (पूर्वजा) and one who is current/stranger (परजा). Salutations to the one who is the largest/all-encompassing (Bṛhat बृहत्) and of highest/great importance (वर्षीयंस्) and ever growing (संवृद्ध)

Viṣvarūpam = the cosmic form or the all-encompassing omni-form.
Pururūpam, meaning multiform/multihued
Virūpam, meaning multifold altering forms
Vahurūpa meaning multi-formed

Kṛṣṇa Yajur Veda Taittirīya Saṃhitā 4.5, Taittirīya Āraṇyaka 10.23.1, Rig Veda 2.33.1, Mahabharatam Drona Parva 202-203

Does Yoga Vaśiṣṭham and Svetasvatara Upaniṣhad have this link back to Āraṇyakas? We have just seen above in Taittirīya Āraṇyaka 10.24.42:

All that is (विश्वं) and all beings (भूतं) and all celestials dimensions (भुवनं) and all the wonders (चित्रं) all possibilities and diversities (बहुधा) all that is born/all happening/ all existence (जातं) all that has come into being (जायमानं) is that (यत् =is that Rudra) | Entirety is controlled (सर्वोह्येष) Rudra’s delight (रुद्रस्सन्महो) to him we surrender/salutations (नमो) so it be, said/concluded (अस्तु)

Taittirīya Āraṇyaka 10.24.42

This is why Rig Veda 6.49.10 called him the father to all creation:

भुवनस्य पितरं गीर्भिराभी रुद्रं दिवा वर्धया रुद्रमक्तौ ।बृहंतमृष्वमजरं सुषुम्नमृधग्घुवेम कविनेषितासः ॥
Of all dimensions/celestial mansions (भुवन) are your progeny (गर्भिन्) and you the father/source (पित), oh Rudra (रुद्र), by day/dawn (दिवा) and by dusk/night ( रुद्रमक्तौ ) you encompass everything (वर्ध) | Oh great and honorable and timeless/ageless (बृहंतमृ + ऋष्व + जरं), most gracious(सु-सुम्न), unconditional one, we/rishis sing our poetic hymns (कविने) to the Supreme (इषितासः/iṣitāsaḥ). 6.49.10

Rig Veda 6.49.10

Soma-Rudra & Amṛta : Immortality / Liberation in Vedas

Soma is a unique concept in the Vedas addressed with many variations. As we have discussed in the beginning, the Vedic concepts used by Rishis are of 3 categories, the material, the divine, and the Yogic plane (adhibhautika, adhidaivika, and adhibhautika). Hence Soma is a Deva and a king, the same Soma is the home of ṛta RV1.43, Soma is also the juice of a plant used in Yagna as a substitute for Amṛta. The Soma herb as explained in Atharva Veda is the foremost and pure AV11.6.15 and is the divine energy of all flora/vegetation AV5.24.7,GS1.16. At times, Soma is the celestial Moon described in Atharva Veda 10 & 11.6.9 which says “Soma; whom the learned men call Chandrama the Moon making all delight” and “The Supreme Being keeps making Soma, the eternal delight” which is empirical to amṛta dripping from the crescent moon on Śiva’s head, but before we make this conclusion let’s explore further. Sometimes, Soma is the full moon belonging to the Tiṣya/Pusya month, on this day oblations are given to Rudra. Monday is called Somavara and is the day of Śiva TS2.2.10. Kausitaki Brāhmaṇa 6 makes it very clear when it says “Rudra is Chandrama” which matches with Śatapatha Brahmāṇa of Śukla Yajur Veda 6.3 wherein the Mahadeva expansion of Rudra is Chandrama/moon. Similar to Rudra, the concept of Soma enters into various aspects of the Yajñá (Yagna). In this way, Soma enters into the offering of the Soma:latha juice, into clarified butter (ghee) used in Yagna, or the full moon, into medicines, into amṛta, and is the very ṛta. In other places, Somapavamana, meaning the purified/clarified/refined version of Soma, gave rise to both Indra and Viṣṇu during Yajñá RV9.96.5. This does not mean Viṣṇu takes physical birth because various divine concepts (Devas) emerge during various states of Yajñá performed by Prajāpati. Soma is also addressed as an additive to milk or ghee used as Medha (offering) of Yajñá. Soma is also used as a synonym for amṛta and it is this Soma that the Devas compete RV1.108, Indra more than others, as his strength comes from the divine Soma through which He and other Devas conquered all the worlds RV8.92/9.62.29. It is this Soma that gives them health, immortality, and strength to fight off Vṛtra, allowing room for ṛta. To this, the Maruts provide their support. Many dualities are paired among various divine concepts in the Vedas, like Mitra-Varuna, similarly, Rudra and Soma are paired together as a dual divinity across Vedas and are treated as one. Atharva Veda also pairs Bhava and Rudra as dual divinity AV11.2.15, similarly, all 8 aspects of Rudras become one concept.

AMRTA: The term amṛta means immortality – not of physicality but of endless existence – which is the state of consciousness and eternal bliss/truth. Sri Aurobindo explains it profoundly as:

amṛta : The truth, satya, of endless existence and eternal consciousness evident in the highest world of Heaven, sat-cit-tapas, and latent here, in worlds of the Earth. It can be ours due to change of the Law of works (vrata) of the Earth in the course of its divine transformation.

Soma: is the lord of the immortalising nectar, he is the god of Ananda, the divine bliss which belongs to the Amrita or divine nature of Sacchidananda and is its foundation. The most high seat of the truth, Mahas, the pure ideal principle which links the kingdom of Immortality to our mortal worlds, is peopled with the children of Immortality — we recall at once the phrase of the Upanishad, visve amritasya putrāh, all ye children of immortality — and the lord of Ananda is to take them into his being through knowledge, the head, through enjoyment, the navel. By Ritam, the ideal Truth, the Rishi ascends through the gates of Ananda, divine beatitude, out of this death into the kingdom of Immortality, “mrityum tīrtwā amritam asnute”.

Sri Aurobindo, Lexicon of Rig Veda

This amṛta significantly applies to Soma and Rudra, later to AgniRV7.4.6 and the Maruts; but in a few instances, it applies to Mitra-Varuna as they are the deliverers of Soma. Soma and amṛta signify truth, medicines, knowledge, health, and immortality which are the same as Rudra, as he is pra-jāḥ amṛtasya “immortals family possessing the amṛta” and parasmin dhāman ṛtasya “home to the highest truth (ṛtasya)” RV1.43. Rudras are also called “the physician among physicians” RV2.33.4 or “the Divine Physician VS16.5” since He possesses thousands of well-needed medicines “सहस्रं ते स्वपिवात भेष॒जा”RV7.46.3/TS1.8.22/4.5.10. Hence, the hymns “Our homage to the Immortal One, to that Rudra of the thousand eyes” AV11.2.3 as they possess the amṛta RV10.93.4, and they specifically declare that there are no young or elderly in their gana (group) RV2.33,5.58/59. We have also seen that the Maruts are addressed as the children of Pṛśni (Vedic cow of knowledge). Three profound titles describe them as “vidatheṣu ā-bhuvaḥ” (born in knowledge), “mahiṣāsaḥ māyinaḥ:citra-bhānavaḥ” (the makers of māyā and of clear vision/light), and “pra-cetasaḥ viśva-vedasaḥ” (conscious and omniscient) RV1.64.6-10. Like all Devas is Rudra also offered Soma? It is on very rare occasions that Rudra is offered Soma, in those rare occasions it’s in a metaphorical sense because Soma is already conjoined with Rudra, why? Because Soma-Rudra becomes conceptually one entity in many hymns and the very first homage to Rudra is conjoined with Soma RV1.43, but this duality soon becomes one in Rig Ved6.74, by the time of Śrī Rudram of Taittirīya Saṃhitā Anuvākam 7, it dawns even more clearly with its primary declaration “nama somāya ca rudrāya caKYV 7.1 and “Lord of Soma” KYV5.4 and in contrast, He is also the “Lord of removing darkness” hence the title Andhasaspati. By the time we reach the Āraṇyakas, He is called “एतथ्सोमस्य सूर्यस्य सर्वलिङ्गग्ग् स्थापयति पाणिमन्त्रं पवित्रम्” meaning “you as this Soma and Surya and all union/signs you stand firm held with purity/holy/sinless”TA10.16.34.16. A much clearer description is given in Brahmāna 1 of Sukla Yajur Vedā Chapter 3, called Śatarudrīya, in an Anuvākam given to Drāpa as “the remover/dispeller”. So, who is this dispeller of darkness/ignorance? It is Andhasa, meaning Soma, and Rudra is Andhasaspati “अन्धसस्पते” TS4.5.10/SB5.3.2, meaning the “Lord of Soma”. Hence, in the Itihāsa and Puráńic realm, Śiva is iconified as Somnath – with a crescent moon on the forehead dripping amṛta. This concept of and its relation with Rudra gave raise to literature like Amritanada Upaniṣhads (one of the minor Upaniṣhad associated with Vedanta and Yoga Darshana). Many derivatives then emerged – like Somashekhara in Peringottukara Kerala, Somadeva, Somaskanda, even Somavāra (a day of Śiva) and Someshwara in Kolar and Somanath in Gujrat, and since Soma is called Chandra, Śiva is called Chandrashekara. Taittirīya Saṃhitā 2.2.11 gives us a brief glimpse into an event where both Ausras and Devas reach a disagreement and when they leave, Soma leaves with Rudras and Agni leaves with Vasus, Indra with Maruts and Varuna with Ādityās.

There are various names given to the three-eyed Śiva, like trayambakam and Virūpākṣa, but there exists a celebrated title “Soma:suragni Lochana“, meaning the one with Soma, Surya, and Agni as His three eyes, which we have discussed with various references in the “Appearance of Rudra” section. Finally, there also exists a unique aspect wherein Soma is described as a conjoined expression that is called bahuvrihi in Sanskrit grammar. “Soma” = “sa” (along with) + “uma” (Parvati), very similar to the title “Sambha Sadasiva” = sa” + ambha meaning along with Ambha (Uma) forever is Śiva. This conjoined expression is not by accident or oversight; many Vedic gurus and acharyas concurred with this aspect. “Sa” means to come along or to accompany, and the divinity that accompanies Rudra is Soma. Ganas/Maruts also accompany Rudra, but they are clearly stated as children. One reference can be found in Sukla Yajur Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā 4.20-36, wherein Soma is addressed as the Mother and as the Goddess to Gods and says “Rudra to return safely with Soma as your companion” hence the expression “Sa+Uma”, so Soma is also addressed as Rudrā (emphasis on the ā denotes the inclusion of feminine essence in conjunction to masculine, for example when we say “om nama Śivāya” the emphasis on ā denotes both Śiva+Śivā similar to Ādityā, and Chandrā). Grihya Sutra of Paraskara Sukla Yajur Veda makes a bold description by saying “She the Mother of Rudras (Maruts) is the daughter of Vasus and the sister of Ādityas and is the center/navel of all immortality”. And we know with certainty that Soma is the center of all immortality and amṛta. There is however no distinct declaration in Veda in which states Soma is Uma the daughter of Himavat, yet from the description seen above Soma is the life, creation and the means to liberation itself hence derived as Sa+Uma by many scholars. Before we enter into the next section of liberation let’s visit Rig Veda 8.48.3 and compare this with our first hymn from Rig Veda 1.43 and see how well they both fit, also this exact hymn landed in Atharvaśiras Upaniṣhad (one of the minor Upaniṣhad belonging to Atharva Veda yet referred by Adi Śankaracharya on multiple occasions).

अपाम सोमममृता अभू॒मागन्म ज्योतिरविदाम देवान् किं नू॒नमस्मान्कृणवदरातिः किमु धू॒र्तिरमृत मर्त्य॑स्य RV 8.48.3
We consumed/attained the Divine Soma, we are now immortal, We have attained the brilliance/light/wisdom, we have witnessed the divine, what have we (the ignorant mortals/suffering/illusions) to fear, being that immortal?

He is “the resort/lord to all hymns/songs”, He is “the resort/lord of all yajñá/sacrifice”, and “He is bliss”. Rudras as the family of immortals possessing amṛta/soma and this Soma is the home to Supreme Truth (ṛtasya). RV 1.43

Rig Veda 8.48.3 / 1.43

PATH OF YAMA: there is a unique hymn that defines the word immortal on a different plane, the “Path of Yama“, and the home to the Supreme Truth (ṛta). Liberation is not an act or a goal, it is to realize the true nature of the self that is superimposed with a cloud of misinformation called Avidya. Andhasah is the “remover/dispeller of A:vid” through knowledge (Vid). But knowledge of what? It is the knowledge of the true nature of the self. Atharva Veda 10.2 is a hymn by Rśi Nārāyaṇa with Devata as Pūrusha asks the question on our behalf, which is “Which Divinity, what only Deity placed sacrifice in Pūrusha? Who gave him truth and falsehood? Whence came Death and immortality?”

यद्यू॒यं पृ॑श्निमातरो॒ मर्ता॑सः॒ स्यात॑न ।स्तो॒ता वो॑ अ॒मृतः॑ स्यात् ॥ 1.38.4
Though you (यद्यू॒यं), who were born to Prishni (पृ॑श्नि :मातरो॒ = cow of knowledge), are mortal (मर्ता॑सः॒), those who sing your hymns become immortal (not physical immortality, but a state of eternal consciousness: satyam. (This hymn is explained in detail in Satarudriya Yagna later in Sukla Yajur Veda)

मा वो॑ मृ॒गो न यव॑से जरि॒ता भू॒दजो॑ष्यः । प॒था य॒मस्य॑ गा॒दुप॑ ॥1.38.5
For you (वो॑) one will not (मा ) become (भू॒द) negligible (अजो॑ष्यः) like a wild beast (मृ॒गो) or a pasturage cattle (यव॑से) Those who invoke you (जरि॒ता) attain (गा॒दु) the path (प॒था) of Yama (य॒मस्य॑).
Note: Yama here is not the Puráńic identity of physical death, but the guardian of highest truth (satyam)
pra-jāḥ amrtasya = immortals possessing the elixir (amṛta); parasmin dhāman ṛtasya = home to the highest truth || 1.43

एवा बभ्रो वृषभ चेकितान यथा देव न हृणीषे न हंसि । हवनश्रुन्नो रुद्रेह बोधि बृहद्वदेम विदथे सुवीराः ॥
Certainly (एवा ), oh mighty chief/overlord (वृषभ ) with tawny/reddish hue (बभ्रो ), henceforth we proclaim (यथा ) the all-knowing/omniscient Divine (चेकितान देव) , forgive us/not punish us (न हृणी), be not angry (न हंसि ), hear our oblation (हवनश्रुन्न) and direct us on this occasion (विदथ), oh powerful (बृहद्व) Rudra of perfect wisdom/speech (बोधि), bless us with noble and heroic successors (सुवीरा) || 2.33.15

Rig Veda 1.38/43, 2.33

Is there any reference to Rudra and Yama other than the Rig Veda? Yes, Sukla Yajur Veda Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā 16.33 says “Homage to the one allied to Yama”. And Caraka-Katha Āraṇyaka III-239 states that when the yagamana (one performing the Yajñá) makes mistakes, then Rudra will become Yama (death), this deadly aspect of Rudra is called Nirṛti (निरृति), hence Rig Veda 6.74.2 requests Rudra to drive away that Nirṛti. Further, Mahābhāratam Karna Parva 34 says “The illustrious Rudra is Death’s self, the year becomes his bow; Kala Ratri the Death-night therefore, which is Rudra’s shadow” and Drona Parva – Nārāyaṇastra-mokshana Parva 203 calls Rudra “You are Yama”. Among the 70 Svayambhu Liṅgas Vrishasthāna takes the 40th position in the list and is called Yamaliṅga. Mahābhāratam in its Anushasana Parva section 141 also explains how Rudra as Maheswara tells Devi Uma that He resides in cremation grounds as this is considered most auspicious on Earth. Even Veda Vyasa also describes this in Drona Parva, Nārāyaṇastra-Mokshana Parva, Section 203. Now that we know the Path-of-Yama (of Truth) and the abode of the Supreme Truth (Rudra), how does one ask Rudra for liberation? How to ask Rudra to drive away from this Nirṛti? Well, the hymn composed by Rśi Vaśiṣṭha in three Vedas, the Rig Veda 7.56, Sukla Yajur Veda Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā 3.60 and Kṛṣṇa Yajur Veda Taittirīya Saṃhitā 1.8, famously known as the Maha Mrityunjaya Mantra or Mokshyadayani Mantra, is not about protecting us from just physical death, but about liberation beyond the cycle of birth and death and into the forever state of immortals’ truth – amṛta. The concept of Mrityu is well explained in the Pravargya Yajna belonging to the Katha Śākhā, which we will explore soon since this Śākhā also has the same Hymn. S Please note the word “Sugandhim”, which usually means fragrance, but here it means the nostalgia one feels upon experiencing a certain sound or fragrance or taste. It is this nostalgia that surfaces during the final moments before death, and it is in these moments that one’s core compulsions – rooted deep into the conditioned mind – arise, and it is this nostalgia and thoughts that define the next life (upadhi). Through the path of Yoga, one has to condition their mind towards Ishwara or remove the cloud of Avidya, and through detachment from compulsions (Vairāgya), one’s true self can come forth. One must note the title “Trayambakam“, which we discussed earlier, is also found in Kṛṣṇa Yajur Veda Taittirīya Saṃhitā 4.5 (Śrī Rudram), and in Sukla Yajur Veda Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā Kanda 3.56. Śatapatha Brahmāṇa Kanda 2, Adhyaya 6, Brahmana 2 dedicates an Yajñá to Rudra explaning the title Tryambaka, performed towards the safety and prosperity after the war using the Maha Mrityunjaya Mantra as its core. This mantra is chanted while circling around the Yajñá Vedi and seeing oneself be separated from death and enter into the immortal truth. So Rudra is both the destructive death (Nirṛti) and also the liberator from the cycle of death as Tryambaka.

त्र्यंबकं यजामहे सुगंधिं पुष्टिवर्धनं । उर्वारुकमिव बंधनान्मृत्योर्मुक्षीय मामृतात् ॥ 7.59.12
Oh Triambaka (3 eyes/seasons), we offer our oblation (यजाम), nourish us (पुष्टि) and bestow us (वर्ध) into the trance of fragrance (सुगंधिं) | May you untie our bonds (बंधना) like a ripened gourd fruit (उर्वारु) unties itself from the stem, and take us beyond death (मृत्यु) and deplete (र्मुक्षीय) our compulsions (र्मु) and take us (मा) into the immortal state (अ॒मृत॑) (मृत्यु + मोक्ष (मोह+क्षेय) + मा-अमृतात्)
Please note: सुगंधिं does not mean physical perfume, but the nostalgia one feels upon experiencing a certain sound or fragrance or taste. So it means to bestow us into the sweetness of imagining Thy Divinity during the transcendental states of dhyana/dharana.
र्क्षीय: means to deplete, and र्मुक्षीय means to deplete our moha/compulsions arising out of Avidya. मा is also an Adj & Conj use as negative as “not”.

Rig Veda 7.59

Before we link this hymn to Caraka-Katha Śākhā and witness its evolution, let’s take notice of how the above landed in Āraṇyaka and one of the primary Upaniṣhad:

सद्योजातं प्रपद्यामि सद्योजाताय वै नमो नमः । भवेभवे नातिभवे भवस्व माम् । भवोद्भवाय नमः ॥ 10.17.35.17
Oh Sadyojatha (सद्योजात = Rudra’s west side face) I surrender on to you (प्रपद्यामि) I bow to you again and again (नमो नमः) | Existance after Existance (भवेभवे = life after life) not more do I seek to comeback (नाति-भवे) liberate me from this repetation (भवस्-व माम्) oh one who is beyond existance (भवोद्भवाय) my salutations to thy (नमः)

स एव काले भुवनस्य गोप्ता विश्वाधिपः सर्वभूतेषु गूढः। यस्मिन्युक्ता ब्रह्मर्षयो देवताश्च तमेवं ज्ञात्वा मृत्युपाशांश्छिनत्ति॥4.15
He in Time (स एव काले ) the overlord/caretaker (गोप्ता) who is the one sole ruler (विश्वाधिपः) of all celestial mansions/creation (भुवनस्य) hidden indweller (गूढः) of all beings (सर्वभूतेषु ) | In whom (यस्मिन् ) the exalted sages who attained Brahmi states (ब्रह्मर्षयो) the divine beings (देवताश्च) merge into (युक्ताः ) by knowing him (तमेवं ज्ञात्वा) are released/cuts/free oneself (चिनत्ति) from the tethers of Death (मृत्युपाशां).

Kṛṣṇa Yajur Veda Taittirīya Āraṇyaka 10.17-21 & Svetasvatara Upaniṣhad 4.15

The Maha Mrityunjaya Mantra has its linkage from Rig Veda to Yajur Veda Saṃhitās, but the Caraka-Katha School (Śākhā) of Kṛṣṇa Yajur Veda places this homage into implementation as a part of its Pravargya Yajna, not that this hymn is not present in this Shaka1 so let’s see how the Yajamana of Yagna goes beyond death giving us a practical relevance to this hymn. So let’s start with a little background of Katha Śākhā’s basis and move to the context of Mrityu:
[1: Caraka-Katha Saṃhitā 9.7 & Kapiṣṭhala-Katha Saṃhita 8.10 have the same Hymn but their manuscripts are only found in fragments and as a whole are forever lost]

The Pravargya is said to beat off recurring death (punarmrtyum apahanti, III 219). The discussion of recurring death represents the intermediate state in the development of Upanishadic thought, emerging as the theory of rebirth with karma in the Upanisads. How ‘second-death’ is to be affected seems to be dependent on the effect of this additional and more severe diksa. It is significant that the undertaking of this special observance results just like that of a normal diksa — in a kind of rebirth of the yajamana. In the present case he not only becomes another consecrated person with a new name, a diksita, but in addition, he also separates himself from death by undergoing the avantaradika in the wilderness.
The Katha (Katha Shaka) clearly stands at the crossroads of traditional brahmana ideas and the beginnings of Upanishadic thought. The idea of punarmrtyu (Katha III 219 apa punarmrtyum jayati, ya evam veda) is one of the steps leading to the Upanishadic concept of Karmic rebirth. In fact, there were several strands of belief that. for the first time in Vedic thought, resulted in the idea of constant rebirth, seen gradually developing in the older Upanishads.

Now, let’s understand what is rebirth (punarmrtyum) mentioned by Katha Śākhā, how is Rudra related to this, and finally how the Yajamana can achieve what is mentioned in Maha Mrityunjaya Mantra by Rśi Vaśiṣṭha:

The Yajamana is implicitly identified with Rudra during the Pravargya (II 100-101). Like Rudra, he gains a new bodily form, svargakrti (II 143, cf. III 225), a ‘heavenly body’. This can be done in several ways. After taking the Pravargya vessel and the other utensils eastwards (III 177), all are laid out in the form of a man. This action creates a new body for the Yajamana, with the Pravargay vessel that glowed during the ritual as his head. In sum, the sponsor of the ritual also becomes adiyavarna ‘sun-skinned’, and goes to heaven like Rudra (III 183).
In the Katha Aranyaka, this is the Pravargya, a ritual in which a blazing clay vessel (mahavira) is identified with the Sun and Rudra Mahavira. This ritual also aims at giving the sponsor of the ritual (Yajamana) a new, heavenly body. This is established by multiple Upanishad-like identification between various entities of microcosm (man), ritual (Yajna), and macrocosm.
Please note: this heavenly body is a subtle body to ascend to heavens (sargo vai loka auttaravedikas III 233: 91.1-2)

From reading the above, as a seeker one must ask two questions, Is Rudra Adiyavarna “Sun-like luster”? Second, does the famous Katha Upaniṣhad concur with the above? The answer is yes to both. Rig Veda itself addresses Rudra with Sun-like luster along with other Vedic Saṃhitā. Coming to Katha Upaniṣhad which itself is a primary Upaniṣhad that belongs to Caraka-Katha Śākhā says:

अङ्गुष्ठमात्रः पुरुषोऽन्तरात्मा सदा जनानां हृदये संनिविष्टः। तं स्वाच्छरीरात्प्रवृहेन्मुञ्जादिवेषीकां धैर्येण। तं विद्याच्छुक्रममृतं तं विद्याच्छुक्रममृतमिति ॥2.3.17
The Purusha, the Spirit within, who is no larger than the finger of a man is seated for ever in the heart of creatures; one must separate Him with patience from one’s own body as one separates from a blade of grass its main fiber. Thou shalt know Him for the Bright Immortal, yea, for the Bright Immortal.

Katha Upaniṣhad 2.3.17

We will go into detail about Caraka-Katha Śākhā soon but let’s explore other Vedic Saṃhitā in relevance with liberation. Here is how Atharva Veda 7.42.2 addresses Soma-Rudra, with hymns also found in Rig Veda 2.74 & 6.74.2 & 6.74.3:

सोमारुद्रा वि वृहतं विषूचीम् अमीवा या नो गयम् आविवेश । बाधेथां दूरं निरृतिम् पराचैः॒ कृतं चिद् एनः प्र मुमुक्तम् अस्मत् ॥१॥
Cast away (वृह), and separate us (विषूची) from all bondages/sicknesses (अमीवा) from us and our families (गय) O Soma and Rudra (सोमारुद्रा ), drive away (पराचै) afar ( दूरं) our pain/suffering (बाध) and death/destruction (निरृति) liberate us ( मुक्त ) from those (अस्मत्) even if (चिद्) they are committed (कृत) sins/papa ( एनः) 7.42.1

सोमारुद्रा यु॒वमेतान्यस्मे विश्वा तनूषु भेषजानि धत्तम् |अव स्यतं मु॒ञ्चतं यन्नो अस्ति तनूषु बद्धं कृ॒तमेनो अस्मत् ॥२॥
O Soma and Rudra (सोमारुद्रा ) always bestow (ध – धत) upon us (यु॒वम +एतानि +अन्य्) the cure, with all (विश्वा) your medicines (भेषजानि) tied to our bodily realm (तनू) | liberate us/untie us (मुञ्चति) from those (अस्मत्) we have (अस्ति) done(कृ॒त) , which (य) are connected (बद्ध) with our physical/bodily realm (तनू) 7.42.2.
Please note: (यु॒वम +एतानि +अन्य्) means all these for us, used as 2nd person pronoun.
Soma and Rudra! Bring all these medicines to our bodies! Untie, get rid of from us the sin committed that is bound to our bodies. 

मा नो रुद्र तक्मना मा विषेण मा नः सं -स्रा दिव्येनाग्निना 11.2.26
Rudra (रुद्र) untie (सं -स्रा) for us (नो ) those diseases (तक्म – ना ) and those vicious poisons (विषेण मा न) and from the divine fire (दिव्येनाग्निना)
Please note : सं -स्रा = untie where as सं-स्राव = flow together

Atharva Veda 7.42.1-2

The synopsis of immortality and liberation and knowledge ended in the Upaniṣhad as:

या ते रुद्र शिवा तनूरघोराऽपापकाशिनी।तया नस्तनुवा शंतमया गिरिशन्ताभिचाकशीहि॥3.5
You (या) Rudra of Auspicious (शिवा) body (तनू), and of fierce form (अघोरा) resident of highest place (गिरिशन्त) with your brilliant design/thought (अभिचा +काश्) which removes our avidya and karmic cycle of pāpa (अ-पापकाशिनी ) make us (नः) realize our blissful clam self(शंतमया + तनू  +तया )
ततः परं ब्रह्मपरं बृहन्तं यथानिकायं सर्वभूतेषु गूढम्‌।विश्वस्यैकं परिवेष्टितारमीशं तं ज्ञात्वाऽमृता भवन्ति॥3.7
Henceforth/moreover, further than (ततः परं) Greatness known to us/our personal God (बृहन्त) is Brahman/infinite that is further/superior (ब्रह्म+परं ) thought each enjoyed their own bodies/individuality (यथानिकायम्) He is the indweller hidden in all (सर्व+भूतेषु+गूढम् ) he along encompasses all entirety and is its authority (विश्वस्य+ एकं+ परिवेष्टितारम + ईशाम् ) knowing/realizing that one becomes amṛta/immortal (ज्ञात्वा+अमृताः ).

Svetasvatara Upaniṣhad 3.5, 3.7

Let’s go to Mahabharatam Sauptika Parva, in which Yudhishthira (Dharmaraj), in despair for losing his children and many others to Drona’s son Ashwathama questions Śrī Kṛṣṇa (Vasudeva), for which He replies:

The holy one said, ‘Verily, Drona’s son had sought the aid of that highest of all the gods, viz., the eternal Mahadeva. It was for this that he succeeded in slaying, single-handed, so large a number of warriors. If Mahadeva be gratified, he can bestow even immortality. Girisha can give such valor as will succeed in checking Indra himself. I know Mahadeva truly, O bull of Bharata’s race! I know also his various acts of old. He, O Bharata, is the beginning, the middle, and the end of all creatures. The entire Universe acts and moves through his energy.

Mahabharatam Itihāsa Sauptika Parva 17

Similarly, Śrī Adi Śankaracharya said:

अन्नपूर्णे सदापूर्णे शङ्करप्राणवल्लभे । ज्ञानवैराग्यसिद्ध्यर्थं भिक्षां देहि च पार्वति ॥ ११॥
Devi Annapurnae, you are forever whole/full, oh beloved eternal companion of Śankara. Bestow upon me as alms the Jnana (wisdom/core essence) that leads to the meaningful outcome of Vairāgya (detachment from desires and compulsions), oh daughter of mountains, Pārvatī.

Annapurāstakam by Śrī Adi Śankaracharya

MEANS TO LIBERATION: We discussed various dimensions to liberation, through Soma, through amṛta, through the Path of Yama, and more. We also realized the Vedic Divinities associated with it. But what are the means? Is it Bhakti, Janan, Karma, or more? This is what the Upanishads are designed for, a discussion between a student and a realized Guru. Svetasvatara Upaniṣhad 6.13 is a good example like many other Upaniṣhads:

नित्यो नित्यानां चेतनश्चेतनानामेको बहूनां यो विदधाति कामान्‌। तत्कारणं सांख्ययोगाधिगम्यं ज्ञात्वा देवं मुच्यते सर्वपाशैः॥
The One Eternal (नित्य) of all that is considered eternal (नित्यानां), The One Conscious (चेतन) in all consciousnesses (awareness in all); He is the Singularity (THE ONE) (एकः) Supreme Ruler and the Judge (विदधा) over all the desires/needs (कामान्) of all beings with names and forms (बहू+नाम्); He is the one Source (तत्कारणम्) to which Sankhya and Yoga (सांख्य+योगा) bring us. One who realizes and knows thy Divine (देवम् ज्ञात्वा) through them shall release all tethers/bondages (सर्वपाशैः मुच्यते).

Svetasvatara Upaniṣhad 6.13

DAKSHINA MURTHI: In continuation to liberation let us understand another celebrated title Dakshina Murthi. Many interpret the word dakshina as only “South”. In Sanskrit, dahkshina means “to be on the right side” or “correct/highest position”, another meaning is “that which is linked through Yajñá (sacrificial process)”. Hence, the word Pra:dakshina, meaning to circle around the deity towards our right, hence signifies the stature of the deity. Since He (Śiva) is medha-patim “the resort of Yajñá/Sacrifice” RV1.43 TS1.3.14 and is seated at the top (pinnacle) of the Himalayan mountains with the daughter of the mountains, He overlooks everything below. Hence the title Dakshina Murthi. But is it that simple? How can one seek the identity and the source of Dakshina facing Rudra? One can seek Svetasvatara Upaniṣhad 4.21 which says “हे रुद्र यत् ते दक्षिणं मुखं तेन मां नित्यं पाहि॥”, here “Dakshina Mukham” doesn’t mean facing South, it denotes the auspicious side of Him with which He always protects. The term Highest Position doesn’t mean just North or limited to one specific direction because He is “dishām ca pataye” and “Pathīnāṃ-PatayeTS4.5.2,VS16.17, meaning the abode/lord of all Celestial Quarters (directions), hence the famous title digambara (Digeva:ambaram:asya), meaning the one who is clad/clothed with space and all directions. Atharva Veda 11.2.14-16 says to Bhava-Rudra “नमो यतमस्यां दिशीतः” meaning “our salutations to you in whatever directions you are” and it continues by saying “salutations to you while coming or going, which seated or standing and while day and night”. While Indra, Surya, Visnu, and other solar deities are associated with East, Śatapatha Brahmāṇa extensively associates Rudra, Soma, Varuna, and Mitras with the Northern quarter of the Yajñá Vedi AV3.7 TS2.6.6, or the topmost position. But a top position of what? This can be found when Maruts, the children of Rudra, are addressed with the three titles vidatheṣu ā-bhuvaḥ (born in knowledge), mahiṣāsaḥ māyinaḥ:citra-bhānavaḥ (the makers of māyā and of clear vision/light) and pra-cetasaḥ viśva-vedasaḥ (conscious & omniscient) RV1.64.6-10Sukla Yajur Veda Kanda 7.2 Brahmāṇa 1 narrates the story of the dual divinities Soma-Rudra who are the dispellers of darkness because Soma is Andhaḥ, meaning remover/dispeller RV1.122,2.33.7 and Rudra becomes Andhasaspati (the lord of Soma). They destroyed the asura Svarbhānu, who created darkness by obstructing the Sun, an event also found in Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa 5.3.2. Rudra also destroyed the Asuras in the famous story of Tripuras (the three kingdoms made of gold, silver, and iron) using Agni as the tip of the arrow, Soma as the stem of the arrow, Viṣṇu as the arrow Shaft TS6.2.3/4.5.5,MB-KarnaParva34. Similarly, they dispel the darkness in people and allow the brilliance to shine forthTS4.5.10. Now, let us look at how Rig Veda sings:

ईळे अग्निं सववसं नमोभिर इह परसत्तो वि चयत कर्तं नः |रथैर इव पर भरे वाजयद्भिः परदक्षिणिन मरुतां सतोमम रध्याम || 5.60
īḷe aghniṃ svavasaṃ namobhir iha prasatto vi cayat kṛtaṃ naḥ |rathair iva pra bhare vājayadbhiḥ par-dakṣiṇin marutāṃ stomam ṛdhyām || 5.60
We send (ईळे) our oblations through Agni (अग्निं) as you are the transmitter of Yajñá (कर्तं नः), accept our praise (नमो) now (इह) oh Agni as we hand over our oblations (परसत्तो)| o those rides of Chariots (रथैर), supreme in battels (पर भरे), we urge to you (वाजयद्भिः) who is on the furthermost(पर) rightward/prestigious position as a councilor/teacher (दक्षिणिन), oh Maruts, you are equally supreme of our praise and songs (रध्याम).

अच्छा॑ वदा॒ तना॑ गि॒रा ज॒रायै॒ ब्रह्म॑ण॒स्पतिं॑ ।अ॒ग्निं मि॒त्रं न द॑र्श॒तं ॥ 1.38.13
With the chant (अच्छा॑ वदा॒) of this hymn may thy Agni embody/manifest (तना॑), and by these words (गि॒रा) of invocation (ज॒रायै॒) of the Lord/resort of Wisdom (ब्रह्म॑ण॒स्पतिं॑) || May Agni (अ॒ग्निं) show us that friend (मि॒त्रं) with your brilliance.
please note: अच्छा॑ = voice, but here it means the chant of this mantra. And Agni’s friends are the Maruts.

Rig Veda 5.60, 1.38.13

या ते रुद्र शिवा तनूरघो॒रापापकाशिनी 4.5.1
You (या) Rudra of Auspicious (शिवा) body (तनूः)(शिवा = Śivā unified form of Śiva+Uma due to the emphasis on ā), and of fierce form (अघोरा) is the dispeller of our darkness and karmic remnants (अ-पापकाशिनी )
Please Note: The Same can be found in Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa 5.3.2 where in Rudra and Soma are those who dispell darkness when the Yajna is performed with the milk of a white cow that has a white calf.

या ते रुद्र शिवा तनूः शिवा विश्वाह भेषजी | शिवा रुद्रस्य भेषजी तया नोमृड जीवसे 4.5.10.2
“yate Rudra Śivā tanuhu Śivā Vishvaha Bheshaji | Śivā Rudrasya Bheshaji
Oh Rudra you are of Śiva (auspicious) body/form. As Śivā to your the medicine/cure (भेष॒जी) to all entirety, you are eternal cure to all worldly ailments (विश्वाहभेषजी ) With that (तया) auspicious form (शिवा) you are the cure to our crying/suffering (रुद्रस्य) (samsara/avidya) medicine (भेषजी) is the relief to us all (न) jivas (जीवसे all living entities) comfort/solace (मृड).

Please note: नो मृड जी॒वसे᳚ : can also interpreted as “save our lives (जी॒वसे᳚) away (नो ) from death (मृड)”
Note: (शिवा = Śivā is the unified form of Śiva+Uma due to the emphasis on ā)

Kṛṣṇa Yajur Veda Taittirīya Saṃhitā 4.5.1 / 4.5.10.2

In the climax of a Yajñá the remaining water he (Adhvaryu) offers to Agnidhra Fire. This residual water is excess and Agnidhra is excess. The Havis are combusted in Garhapatya Fire and the oblations are made in the Ahavaniya Fire. This Agnidhra is receiving what is declared in excess. That is why this is offered to the Divine Rudra, and this northern quarter where the Agnidhra resides is the quarter of the God. He offers saying “Oh Rudra! that name of yours is effective in inflicting pain to the evil/enemies and which is Highest, to that name we offer this water!”

Sukla Yajur Veda Kanda7.3.3.4 Brahmāṇa 2

The Unconditional Father to All

Rudras are addressed as:

स्वयश = self-majestic RV1.129.3
स्व व्ने = self supreme RV7.46
स्वतवसो = self-mightily RV1.166.2
Independent Divinity holding the elixir of immortality RV5.58,TS4.5 and healing medicines RV1.114.5
JagatamPataye / Kśhetranam Pataye TS4.5.2 VS16.18 = Creator of Creation/realities/auspicious sites
Ruler of those with 2 and 4 legs RV1.114.1 AV4.28.3
Paśūpati/Pashunampati TS4.5.2 = Ruler of all kinds of beings and groups TS4.5, hence is called , “Abode of all Beings tiled in the cycle of life”
Satpatim = Abode/master of all beings RV2.33.12
Bhutapati = Lord of all beingsAV11.2.1, this title is also given to Indra RV1.11.1
Bhutanam Adipathi (भूतानामधिपतयो) = Overlord of all beings TS4.5
Pathīnāṃ-Pataye VS16.17 = Lord of Lords.
KshayaDhīrā (क्षयद्वीराय) = Rulers and leader of all brave. RV10.92.9
Satwanam Pataye (सत्वनां पतये) = Abode of all that is virtuous TS4.5.2

Rudra Sculpture Tala, Bilaspur India. Unique Sculpture composite of various animals and beings. Source: Bilaspur.gov gallary.

So Rudra is self-majestic and self-ruling, He is also the abode and ruler of all beings as seen in Rig Veda. The term “Beings” is well explained in Rig Veda as ‘Sat‘ and ‘BhutaAtharva Veda as Ātmanvant (“आत्मन्वन्त्“) AV11.2.10 which means entities of Atman and in both Yajur Vedas as Pashu. This independence/sovereignty of Rudra is well explained in CarakaKatha Āraṇyaka II-100/III-177/183 wherein after Prajapathi’s Yajñá, Devas emerged and ascended to the heavenly realm (Svarga), and did not recognize an entity walking with Sun-like luster (ādityavarna), as Rudra ascended to supremacy (mukhya mahiman) with His own might and sovereignty and threatened the Devas into submission who excluded him from the Yajñá. In this way, the Pravargya Yajñá states that the Yajamana upon performing this ritual will attain a subtle body (Svargakrti) and will ascend to the heavenly realm (Svarga) just like Rudra. This matches with the Aṅganyāsa ritual wherein one invokes Rudra within oneself by pointing their fingers to various locations/organs of the body, does becomes eligible to worship Rudra. With this new body, the Yajamana will overcome rebirth and the cycle of death called purarmrtyu as the hymn sings: “apa punarmrtyum jayati, ya evam veda” KA III-219. This made many western scholars consider Rudra to be an independent outsider and a Sovereign Divinity. However, as we progress deeper into the relation with other Vedic divinities like Agni, Soma, and Varuna, much clarity dawns. This independent sovereignty of Rudra is in line with His unique nature of being both benevolent and malicious, and for His uniqueness to emerge in any divinity. More interesting is His benevolence towards both nefarious and pious beings TS4.5 . Nefarious like chthonic (beings of crude levels of consciousness) and Vrātyas RV3.26,5.53,AV15, and nomadic sages or wanderers, and many more, collectively addressed as bhuta-ganas, meaning various groups of beings belonging to different backgrounds, geographic locations, skills, age-groups, genders, physical attributes, both learned and immature, famous and unknown, rich and poor, of all professions, clans, and lineages, and not limited to those liked by the Devas, esp. Indra (Solar Deities). Hence, many scholars appropriated the title Harikeśa as self-luminant, fair-headed, meaning the one who is unprejudiced towards all beings. Hence the word Rudras refers to various groups or “ganas” who have the common leader īśhana or the father Rudra. The details of this fascinating multitude of groups are elaborated on both in Kṛṣṇa Yajur Veda Taittirīya Saṃhitā 4.5 and Sukla Yajur Veda Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā 16. This is the very reason various Vedic Śākhās called him with similar titles as Satpatim, Bhutapatim, Paśūpati, & Jagathpati. By the time of the Atharva Veda, the stature of Vrātyas reached that of Brahman in the 15th kanda/chapter called Vrātya Suktam. The exploration relating to Vrātya Suktam and Śiva Sankalpa Suktam will be done as a separate section, for now, we will just use its reference. Then comes the title “Asura”, which is used to describe a group of primordial beings alongside the Devas, with whom the Devas compete for Soma (amṛta) RV1.108. Many examples can be found in the Itihāsa, for example in Ramayana, Ravan gets his boons from Mahadeva, and so does Sri Rama when He shows Devi Sita the place where Mahadeva bestowed his grace before the battle R6.123.19. Similarly, Mahābhāratam Shanti Parva gives us a perfect quote “Rudra decimates all, the honest/noble and the wicked alike, he makes no favorites and no distinction” because Ashwathama gets his boon from Mahadeva using which he creates irrefutable damage to the Pandavas, the same Mahadeva gives his Paśūpatastra to Arjuna. On many occasions, the word ‘Asura’ is used as a title to describe the strength and ferocious side of the Devas’ wrath, often associated with Mitra, Varuna, and Indra. But there is a difference between associating someone with Asura versus calling Rudra “The Asura of Mighty Heavens” RV2.1.6/1.122.1 TS1.3.14, and Maruts are addressed as the “Lord of Asuras” RV1.108/122. What about Soma? Soma and Rudra both are called Asuras, and sages in fact ask for their Asura powers to be kept at bay RV6.74.1. There also comes the title Manyu SY10.20 found both in Rig Veda and Yajur Veda and the title Ugra RV2.33,9.11, AV2.28.3, meaning a ferocious one. So, this Rudra who is ferocious, makes us weep, whose children (Rudras) are rustic, mountain dwellers, destroyers, who associates with Asuras and nefarious beings, is Ghora (terrible), Manyu (wrath), Vrātya (nomadic), Ugra (threatening) and Asura (Fierce), yet in total contradiction, Rudra is Śiva (The Auspicious), following are few of the Vedic adjectives used to describe Rudra, and obviously the list is overwhelmingly clear.

Śiva = the auspicious RV10.92 , Mayaḥ = bestower of ananda/bliss RV1.114, Śreṣṭhaḥ = the foremost & pure RV1.43, Mīḍhvaḥ = generous RV1.114 , śriyās = welfare/bliss/prosperous RV2.33.3, Mṛḷayākuḥ Hastaḥ = a compassionate hand RV2.33.7, Shamtamam Hruday = pleasant or beneficent heart RV1.43, Sumna = pious/pure/forgiving RV2.33.7, Sumangala सुमङ्गल = wellbeing- fortune VS16.6 ,  sumanasyá mānā = Kind hearted RV6.74.4, suhávo सु॒हवो॒ = easily reached/invoked RV2.33.7, r̥dūdáraḥ ऋदू॒दर = kind/soft/gentle RV2.33.7, śam-yoḥ sumnam = friendly bliss/ānandamRV1.43/6.74.1, mrḷataṁ = friendly forgiving, RV6.74.1, Swati-bhi स्वस्तिभि RV7.46.4= bestower of welfare/happyness/safety. Shubha-ya शुभया TA10.10 = Holy/sacred/auspicious. विचिन्ता = thoughtful and caring. mīḍhuṣe मीढुषे = bestows benedictionsVS16.8 , मीळ्हुषे milhuse = Generous/rewarding/loving RV1.122.1. Satwanam Pataye (सत्वनां पतये) = Abode of all that is virtuous TS4.5.2

Does that mean Rudras will not slay Vṛtra? of course not, Rudra is called “vr̥trahánā” meaning the one who slays Vṛtra, this exact title is given to Indra as well. Atharva Veda 4.28.3 says “oh thousand-eyed slayer of Vṛtra, lord of both two feet and four, save us from our sorrows”. However, both sages and commoners feared the wrath of Rudras, but they knew that Rudras were not malicious. They understood the compassionate hand of Rudras that holds the elixir of immortality and the healing medicines RV1.114.5/2.33.7 , a hand that can protect from divine will, give shelter, health, boons to bear children, boons to get a loving spouse, wealth, and prosperity RV2.33.7,VS3.57-59 . Rig Veda says in conjunction with that above that Rudra and Soma are the bearers of “seven gems” of consciousness which is the wisdom of seven sages and the brilliance of Sun’s seven rays, but on a physical level it also refers to the seven Dhātu explained by Ayurveda that constitution our bodies RV6.74.1, that is why Rudra is called Puśtanam Pataye (पु॒ष्टानां पतये) TS4.5.2 meaning the abode of all abundance/all that fulfils or suffices our needs. More interesting part can be found in Atharva Veda 10.2 which is a hymn by Rishi Nārāyaṇa and Devata as Pūrusha asks a question on our behalf, which is “who brings forth to the mighty Pūrusha both pleasant and unpleasant things, evil, suffering, distress? Whence comes success, prosperity opulence, thought, and utterance? Hence, Rudra the divine contradiction and a father to all is the answer to this question. Both Yajur Saṃhitā, the Taittirīya Saṃhitā 4.5&7 and Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā 10.20 primes this conclusion in its Śrī Rudram and Śatarudrāya respectively, but let us start with Rig Vedā 6.49.10 then move to both Yajur Vedas and finally find its residence in Upaniṣhad, but before that let’s examine another question asked on our behalf by Rishi Nārāyaṇa, which is: “By whom was this our earth disposed? By whom was heaven placed over it?”

भुवनस्य पितरं गीर्भिराभी रुद्रं दिवा वर्धया रुद्रमक्तौ ।बृहंतमृष्वमजरं सुषुम्नमृधग्घुवेम कविनेषितासः ॥
Of all dimensions/celestial mansions (भुवन) are your progeny (गर्भिन्) and you the father/source (पित), oh Rudra (रुद्र), by day/dawn (दिवा) and by dusk/night ( रुद्रमक्तौ ) you encompass everything (वर्ध) | Oh great and honorable and timeless/ageless (बृहंतमृ + ऋष्व + जरं), most gracious(सु-सुम्न), unconditional one, we/rishis sing our poetic hymns (कविने) to the Supreme (इषितासः/iṣitāsaḥ). Rig Veda 6.49.10

सथिरेभिरङगैः पुरुरूप उग्रो बभ्रुः शुक्रेभिः पिपिशेहिरण्यैः |ईशानादस्य भुवनस्य भूरेर्न वा उ योषद रुद्रादसुर्यम ||
You are well/completely (अङ्ग) established/sustainer (स्थिरेभिः) with multiple/diverse forms (पुरुऽरूपः), You are fierce (उग्रः), yet pure and luminous (शुक्र+भिः), with reddish brown and tawny hue (बभ्रु), all-encompassing (पिपि+श) brilliance (हिरण्यैः) | You are the sovereign authority (ईशानात्) of all realms/worlds (भुवनस्य), oh Great one (भूरि), You Rudra (रुद्रा +त्) the Divine spiritual head(सुर्यम्) 2.33.9
Please note: अङ्ग here is not hands or fingers but is a stressing adjective refers to Confirmation or solicitation. शुक्र means clear/white/opaque, hence the name śukreśvara linga of Varanasi.सुर्यम् means Godhead

Rig Veda 2.33.9/6.49.10

भवस्य हेत्यै जगतां पतये नमो नमो 4.5.2
Of Creation, of birth, of existence (भवस्य) you are its basis (हेत्यै) and the realities (जगतां ) you are the load/abode (पतये ) salutation (नमो )
Please note: भव is the title of Rudra defining the aspect of Creation and it progeny.

Kṛṣṇa Yajur Veda Taittirīya Saṃhitā 4.5.2

यो अग्नौ रुद्रो यो अप्स्व् अन्तर् य ओषधीर् वीरुध आविवेश । य इमाविश्वा भुवनानि चक्लृपे तस्मै रुद्राय नमोऽस्त्वग्नये ।। 7.87.1
Its you Rudra (रुद्रो) who is (यो) in Agni (अग्नौ), who dwells in waters, to Rudra who hath entered into herbs/medicinal plants (ओषधी +र्वीरुध ) , to Him who formed and fashioned all these entirety (इमा -विश्वा) and its worlds (भुवन), to this (तस्मै) Rudra, we give our homage (स्त्वग्नये) and salutations (नमो)

पुरस्तात् ते नमः कृण्म उत्तराद् अधराद् उत ।अभीवर्गाद् दिवस् पर्य् अन्तरिक्षाय ते नमः ॥ 11.2.4
तव चतस्रः प्रदिशस् तव द्यौस् तव पृथिवी तवेदम् उग्रोर्व् अन्तरिक्षम् । तवेदं सर्वम् आत्मन्वद् यत् प्राणत् पृथिवीम् अनु ॥11.2.10
From the front/Eastward (पुरस्तात्) I give you (ते ) myself as oblation (नमः ), and from Northward/Upper regions (उत्तराद्=uttarAdri Himalayas) and from Below/Southern regions (अधरा), | reaching all quarters/directions/dominions (अभीवर्ग + दिवस्) all around (पर्य्), and from the atmospheres/sky/celestial spaces in the middle (अन्तरिक्षा) I give you myself as homage (ते नमः )
You are (तव ) the four directions/quarters (चतस्रः), you are the celestial worlds (प्रदिश्) and the heavens (द्यौस्), you are the Earth (पृथिवी), you of formidable and fierce (उग्रोर्व्) of all that is in the skys (अन्तरिक्षम्), you are entirety (तवेदं सर्वम् ), you are all that is atman/beings (आत्मन), you are the life (प्राणत्) of/on Earth (पृथिवी) and everything after/beyond (अनु)

भवो दिवो भव ईशे पृथिव्या भव आ पप्र उर्व अन्तरिक्षम्। तस्यै नमो यतमस्यां दिशी॑तः॒ ॥ 11.2.27
As Bhava (भव) you are the authority/rule (ईशे) over Heavenly/Celestial (दिवो) and Earthly realms (पृथिव्या), and you encompass the regions in the middle, where ever you may be, we pay our reverence.

भवाशर्वौ मन्वे वां तस्य वित्तं ययोर् वाम् इदं प्रदिशि यद् विरोचते। 4.28.1
सहस्राक्षौ वृत्रहना हुवेहं दूरेगव्यूती स्तुवन्न् एम्य् उग्रौ । याव् अस्येशथे द्विपदो यौ॒ चतुष्पदस् तौ नो मुञ्चतम् अंहसः ॥ 4.28.3
Oh Bhava (भवा) oh Sharva (शर्वौ ) looking up to your (वां) in reverence (मन्व ) may this (तस्य – वा for वाम्)) existence (वित्त) thou under (इदं)  your command/dominion (प्र-दिश्) that exists under your (यद् – इदं) illuminating (विरोचते)
Thousand-eyed (सहस्राक्षौ ) slayers of Vritra (वृत्रहना ), I call up you (हुव-हं ) and I sing to thy in praise (स्तुवते) secure us/comfort us (ए म्य्/क्षेम्य) oh fierce one (ugrau) whose reach is of far (दूरे) dwelling lands (गव्यूति). Your are (याव् ) the origin/caretaker (अस्य शथे =  śám ásad) all these two-footed (द्विपदो ) and four-footed (चतुष्पदस् ) creatures [Pasupati], deliver us/free us/untie us (मुञ्चति मुञ्च°ते) from distress (अंहति /अंहस्).
[Consistently similar reference can be found in Rig Vedā 1.114.1 and Yajur Vedā 3.1.4. More interesting part can be found in Atharva Vedā 10.2.6 which is a hymn by Rishi Narayana and Devata as Pūrusha asks the question “Whose might surpasses all directions so that the two-footed (द्विपदो ) and four-footed (चतुष्पदस् ) have their ability? and all 3 Vedās as we see above answers that question. This finally landed in Svetasvatara Upaniṣhad 4.13]

Atharva Veda 7.87.1 /4.28.1-3/11.2.4/11.2.10/11.2.27

प्रजापते॒ न त्वदे॒तान्य॒न्यो विश्वा॑ रू॒पाणि॒ परि॒ ता बभूव । यत्कामास्ते जुहु॒मस्तन्नो अस्तु । अ॒यम॒मुष्य पि॒तासाव॒स्य पि॒ता । व॒यँ स्याम॒ पतयो रयी॒णाँ स्वाहा । रुद्र॒ यत्ते॒ क्रिवि॒ परं॒ नाम॒ तस्मिन्हु॒तमस्यमे॒ष्टमसि॒ स्वाहा ।। 10.20
Oh Prajāpati, none other than you to comprehend all that is created and its forms, to fulfill our heart’s desire; I offer my oblations to thee, you are father and thy sire?
Praise to that Rudra, the abode/lord of all riches, most vital supreme of names, I offer my oblations to thee! 10.20

शिवो नामासि स्वधितिस्ते पिता नमस्ते अस्तु मा मा हिँसीः । 3.63
Śivo nãmãsi svadhiṣṭhite pitha namaste asthu
Salutations (नमस्ते ) to the one named Śiva (नामासि॒ शि॒वो = the auspicious and gracious one) the all-knowing father (स्वधितिस्ते pitha), harm(हिंस) us (मा ) not”.

Sukla Yajur Veda Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā 3.63/10.20

The above is further elaborated in Kṛṣṇa Yajur Veda Taittirīya Āraṇyaka 10.10, which later gave rise to sloka 4, Chap 3 in the Svetasvatara Upaniṣhad (one of the 18 primary Upaniṣhads):

यो देवानां प्रथमं पुरस्ताद्विश्वाधियो॑ रुद्रो महर्षिः॑ । हिरण्यगर्भं पश्यत॒ जायमान स नो देवः शुभया स्मृत्यास्संयुनक्तु ।  यस्मात्परं नापरमस्ति किंचिद्यस्मान्नाणीयो न ज्यायोस्ति कश्चित् ।  T.A 10.10
That among (यो) the Divinity (देवानां) is first (प्रथमं) foremost ruler/observer of creation (पु॒रस्ता॒द्विश्वाधियो॑ = पुरस्तात् + विश्वा + विधियोग) oh Rudra (रु॒द्रो) of great austerity bestower of wisdom (महर्षिः) | The golden womb of creation/Prajāpati (हिरण्यगर्भं) come to visibility/conspicuous be witnessed  (पश्यत) it into existence/ nascent (जायमान) he/heaven (स) for us (नो) as Divinity (देवः) auspicious/wellbeing (शुभया) remember (स्मृत्या) union may endow bestow (संयुनक्तु)

Kṛṣṇa Yajur Veda Taittirīya Āraṇyaka 10.10

यो देवानां प्रभवश्चोद्भवश्च विश्वाधिपो रुद्रो महर्षिः।हिरण्यगर्भं जनयामास पूर्वं स नो बुद्ध्या शुभया संयुनक्तु॥
He is (यो) the creator/source (प्रभव) of the emergence (उद्भवः) of all Deva’s/Divinity (देवा+नां) and the highest of Rishis (महर्षिः) and the supreme owner over entirety ( विश्व+धिपो ). He who is the cause of time/and the emergence (जनया+अमस/जनयाम्+आस) of the brilliant/golden womb which is the source of creation (हिरण्यगर्भं), prior (पूर्वं) to celestial heavens and us (स – नो) and the one only (शुभया) to bestow/endow (संयुनक्त+ उ) knowledge and intelligence (बुद्ध्या)
Please note: जन = people or production, जनया = leading man/mankind andअमस = time, but जनयामस can also be broken as जनयाम्+आस wherein जनयाम् = “cause of birth”.

Svetasvatara Upaniṣhad 3.2

If He is the father to all creation and realities are we to give oblation to Him as his children?

कुमारश्चि॑त्पितरं वन्दमानं प्रति नानाम रुद्रोपयन्तम् भूरेर्दातारं सत्पतिं गृणीषे स्तुतस्त्वं भेषजा रास्यस्मे || RV2.33.12
Like a son (कुमार) gives salutations (वन्दमानं ) to one’s father (चित् + त्पितरं), likewise in your presence (उपयन्तम्) I too present my obeisance (नानाम) towards you (प्रति) Oh Rudra (रुद्रो) Oh giver/benifactor (दातृ / दातार) in abundance (भूरेर भूरि) I sing my praise (गृणीषे) oh lord of all beings (सत्पतिं) I sing your (त्वम्) hymns (स्तुतस्) bestow upon us (रास् + अस्मे asmé) your healing medicines (भेषजा)

आ ते पितर्मरुतां सुम्नमेतु मा नः सूर्य॑स्य संदृशो युयोथाः अभि नो वीरो अर्वति क्षमेत प्र जायेमहि रुद्र प्रजाभिः RV2.33.1
Hither (आ ) Bestow upon us (मा ) your (ते ) benevolance (सुम्न), oh father of Maruts (पितर्+मरुतां ), may you never (नः) refuse/keep us away (युयोथाः) from your brilliance (सूर्य॑स्य), may you be gracious upon our cavellery/warriers/heros (वीरो ) and from harm (अर्वत), may we (प्र=ask to fullfill our wish) be forgiven (क्षम) come as your progeny as your (रुद्र ) children (प्रजाभिः जायते= be born again) through your children.
Please note: Because Maruts are: children of Pṛśni “The Vedic Cow of Knowledge”, “born in knowledge”, “the makers of māyā and of clear vision/light”, and “conscious & omniscient” RV1.64.6-10 And Ruda is the laord of heros RV 1:114,VS16.48. Grihya-sutra of Paraskara Sukla Yajur Veda 1.3 also states that Aditi is the cow of knowledge.

Rig Veda 2.33.1/12

Much clear evidence will be seen soon when we discuss the essence of Uma and Daksha Yajñá in the upcoming sections. As the great scholar Kalidas said:

वागर्थाविव संपृक्तौ वागर्थप्रतिपत्तये । जगतः पितरौ वन्दे पार्वतीपरमेश्वरौ ।।
“I bow to the mother and the father of the world, Pārvatī and Parameśvara (Ṥiva), who are inseparably conjoined, just like a word and its meaning are inseparably conjoined for the purpose of comprehension.”

Raghuvansham by Kalidas

Similarly, Śrī Adi Śankaracharya said:

माता च पार्वती देवी पिता देवो महेश्वरः बान्धवाः शिवभक्ताश्च स्वदेशो भुवनत्रयम्
My mother is Devi Parvati, my father is the divine Maheśvaram (the supreme authority); all who worship the ever auspiciousness (Śiva) are my relatives, in this land and all the three worlds.

Annapurāstakam by Śrī Adi Śankaracharya

Rudrīya

Vedic hymns of Rudra are called Rudriya –like Śatarudrīya, meaning 100 hymns to Rudra – and these hymns are sung by Aditi, Prajāpati, Rishis, Vyasa, Śrī Kṛṣṇa, and others (We will go into Śatarudrīya soon). Among these Rudriyas those used as calming oblations/offerings are called ;  Śāntarudriya. And since these Rudriyas are sung by Devas they are called Śāntadevatyam. For example:

In what way (कथा ) can one chant/speak (ब्रवीति) about the magnificence of Rudriya (महे । रुद्रियाय), How can one directly understand (कद्राये चिकितुषे =कत् + रयेण +चिकितुषे) our supporter (भगाय) | Maybe by rivers (आप:), medicinal herbs (ओषधीः), or (उत) in between (नः । अवन्तु) the sky (द्यौ) or forests (वना) or mountains (गिरयः) and their trees/plants (वृक्ष) RV 5.41.11
Please note: Rudriya are the hymns dedicated to Rudra, which is a cumulative of Rudra’s entire essence. Bhaga here represents Aditya, which is the sustainer of life on Earth and its sky. Since the Puruṣa (consciousness) is not in our experience, we seek that magnificence through Creation/Prakṛti

To the one with joyful/peaceful heart, we want to declare to Rudra, to the conscious knower, the most bountiful, the mightiest, in order that Aditi would hold/sing (and bring forth) Rudriya on our behalf and on behalf of all creatures, in order that knowledge (cow), that Mitra-Varuna and that Rudra would wake us all to awareness; to this we all agree/conclude.

Rig Veda 5.41.11, 1.43.2

Mitra ~Varuna

Mitra & Varuna are the celestial duo to which we have been referring all along. Like Rudra and Maruts, they are Immortal – not of the physical body but by the liberation from avidya (ignorance of the true self). They possess amṛta and medicines – especially Varuna, who is addressed as the Physician, just like Rudra is called the Divine PhysicianVS16.5. They are also addressed as those with knowledge and intelligence KYV4.4.1,5.3.6 – like the Maruts, who are born in knowledge, and brahmāspati, lord of wisdomRV1.38.13. They are the Asuras of Heavens and are ugrā (terrible/fierce), yet benignant and benevolent. Maruts are the winds and the bringers of rain (nourishment and food) and lightning-thunder KYV4.5.11, so is Varuna (the rains). Maruts are the heroes and guardians of Heavens and Earth, the makers of Maya, and the guardians of ṛta (cosmic phenomenon). The cumulative spiritual nature of this cosmic duo is but a total impression of Rudra, but does such similarity justify them as Rudra RV 5.61-72? Yes, following hymns of Varuna-Mitra from Rig Veda Mandala 5 will clarify without ambiguity. Rudra enters into various aspects of a Yajñá. For example, water is placed in vessels called Kalashas during a Yajñá, and Adityas and Rudra enter them. We have seen multiple times how Rudra enters into various aspects – like in medicines, into Soma, into Winds which are their arrows, into Vedic syllables, water, and so forth. The long-lost Caraka-Katha Āraṇyaka III-222 also addresses Mitra and Varuna as the eyes of Rudra which are the Sun and the fire.

ता वां सम्यगद्रुह्वाणेषमश्याम धायसे । वयं ते रुद्रा स्याम ॥ 5.70.2 tāǀvāmǀsamyakǀadruhvāṇāǀiṣamǀaśyāmaǀdhāyaseǀvayamǀteǀrudrāǀsyāma ǁ
May you, oh benevolent divine, nourish and provide food for our living (through rains and generous winds) . Oh Rudras may we also become such.
पातं नो रुद्रा पायुभिरुत त्रायेथां सुत्रात्रा । तुर्याम दस्यूंतनूभिः ॥ 5.70.3
pātamǀnaḥǀrudrāǀpāyu-bhiḥǀutaǀtrāyethāmǀsu-trātrāǀturyāmaǀdasyūnǀtanūbhiḥ ǁ
Save us oh Rudras, guard us (पायु) with superior strength (तुर्याम) that can well protect us (सुत्रात्र) so that we can face the Dasyus (दस्यूं) on our own (तनू)

Rig Veda 5.70

Agni

Agni with Female Companian holding fly-whisk ca 950-1000 India Sandstone. (The Walters Art Museum 25.248)

“एष रुद्रो यदग्निः”TS 2.2.10 Rudra is that Agni and Agni becomes Rudra, “Agnir vai rudrah”KA III-239/MS2.1.10 or as Rig Veda says “tvám agne rudró ásuro mahó divás” RV2.1.6. Across Rig Veda, there are numerous examples where Agni becomes Rudra RV2.1.6/4.2/4.3. The similarity between Agni and Rudra is so close that they are treated identically. Those exploring from an angle of Agni will treat Agni as Rudra, similarly to those examining Rudra will treat Rudra as Agni. In simple words, Agni is everything, and so is Rudra but both are independent concepts of Vedas who have a large overlap and are eulogized in extensive detail. Hence, Taittirīya Saṃhitā 5.4.3.1 says “rudro va esa yadagni” and Atharva Veda 7.87.1 says “yó agnáu rudró yó apsv àntár yá óṣadhīr vīrúdha āvivéśa” meaning oh Rudra who is in Agni who is rapid water and in Plants and more, the same can be said for Agni as well. Rig Veda 5.3.3 & 4.3.6-7 & 5.51.13 & 7.10.4 are classic examples where Rudra is not an adjective to Agni’s ferociousness, since it clearly honors many other divines including the great Rudra, and separately uses Maruts to denote the mantle Rudras, hence Rudra is not always an epithet. Because Vedas gave such a detailed explanation for these two concepts, and because they both have diverse expansions, the likelihood of them overlapping is very high. Hence, there is nothing wrong with Sages/Rśi treating them the same because their nature and roles go hand in hand. Any further doubt will be removed when we examine Rig Veda 4.3.1 which clearly shows how close Agni is to Rudra. For example, Sun is a Star, but a Star can be more than just a Sun, similarly, Agni is Rudra but Rudra can be more than just Agni and vice-versa, both have commonalities yet both divinities preside over various aspects of ṛta. But before we go to Rudra’s omniscience let us take a look at Agni.

Agni is the divine omnipresent, omniscient and omnipotent Will, kavikratu, Seer-Will. Being Will, inseparable from Consciousness and Force, without which there is not any existence, he is universal god, Vaishavanara, presents in all worlds and in all that is in them. He fills both firmaments and mid-word, RV1.73.8; I proclaim three-headed seven-rayed whole Agni sitting within two parents (Earth and Heaven), him filling all bright planes of Heaven, RV 1.146.1. He is a head of upper Heaven, RV 3.2.14; he is satyaḥ, true (i.e. of highest Truth of existence sat), RV 1.1.5, 3.26.1, making true (satyā) all works, RV 1.70.8; he holds the ecstasy in highest degree, RV 1.1.1; sitting in Waters, knowing Svar, RV 3.3.5. Still, the gods have established him, the universal god, in Earth within human creatures like Svar, RV 1.148.1, 3.3.5. So Agni “has two homes” – as in worlds of Heaven so in world of Earth, he “is born” in two places, janitrī, (an original sense of popular now phrase “twice-born”), therefore he is named jātavedas, knowing births of gods and of men, and having two Mothers dvi-mātā, and it is this makes him Envoy, dūta, Traveller between Heaven and Earth, it is due to his double birth he is Hotar, hotṛ, and brings here, in Earth, the other gods and brings to them human’s offering, havyavāhana, and it is because of it the say, that other gods “are sleeping” before Dawn, whereas Agni is wakeful even in night of our Earth and shines in its darkness, Lord of the Nights, kṣapāvat, kṣapo rājan, it is why a man approaches to him the first.

Sri Aurobindo, Lexicon of Rig Veda

न॒हि दे॒वो न मर्त्यो॑ म॒हस्तव॒ क्रतुं॑ प॒रः । म॒रुद्भि॑रग्न॒ आ ग॑हि ॥ 1.19.2
Neither (न॒हि) Devas (दे॒वो), nor (न) Mortals are higher (म॒ह) than You (प॒रः) | Bring with (आ) you the Maruts, oh Agni ||

ये म॒हो रज॑सो वि॒दुर्विश्वे॑ दे॒वासो॑ अ॒द्रुहः॑ ।म॒रुद्भि॑रग्न॒ आ ग॑हि ॥1.19.3
Those who (ये) know (वि॒दु) the highest/great (म॒हो) vital consciousness (रज॑सो), entirety (र्विश्वे॑) of Devas (दे॒वासो॑), and are harmless (अ॒द्रुहः॑) | Bring with (आ) you those Maruts, oh Agni ||
Note: रज॑सो : does not refer to the Guṇa of Prakṛti

Rig Veda 1.19.2/3

Like Rudra, He too is a polar contradiction, he is of the Asura nature described in both the Rig Veda and the Yajur Veda RV4.2,TS 1.6,4.1. Agni disintegrates everything, from Yajñá to a corpse which is His fierce (aghora) side, but He remains unblemished, so He is Śiva (Forever Auspicious) and Mīḍhvaḥ (gracious) RV 3.16,7.34,4.6. But Taittirīya Saṃhitā, esp. Śatarudrāya, goes much deeper and clearer than this, by addressing Agni’s fierce form (aghora tanūr) as Rudra and the auspicious body as ŚivaTS 2.2, 5.7.3,4.5.1/10. Hence the hymns from Yajur Veda Taittirīya SaṃhitāŚrī Rudram says “yate Rudra Sivā tanuhu”TS4.5.10 meaning Rudra who has the auspicious/Siva body. Hence Agni is also the possessor of amṛta just like Rudra RV7.4.6/1.43. Mahābhāratam Anushasanika Parva 161 elaborates this topic wherein Sri Krishna says to Yudhishthira about Rudra as:

Sri Krishna says to Yudhishthira about Rudra: Brāhmanas conversant with the Vedas says that the divine has two forms. One of these is terrible, and the other mild and auspicious. Those two forms, again, are subdivided into many forms3. That form which is fierce and terrible is regarded as identical with Agni, and Lightening (Asani), and Surya. That other from which is mild and auspicious is identical with Righteousness and Water and Chandramas4. Then again, it is said that half of his body is fire and half is Soma (or the moon).

Mahābhāratam Anuśāsanica Parva Section 161 (non-jaya section)

Time – Agni – Rudra

Let’s bring one more concept between Agni and Rudra with two unique titles given to Rudra, first is trikāgnikālāya meaning the 3 fires which blaze at all times, are garhapatya, ahavaniya, and agnihotra. Time is always burning or is exhaustive, meaning it doesn’t stop, and trik+āgni+kālāya also depicts the three dimensions of time, which are the memory of the past, the present moment at hand, and the upcoming imaginative future. One might think of past and future as linear events and so are non-existential, but we will address this soon. The second title is kālāgnirudrāya (कालाग्निरुद्र) meaning fire that devours time, why? Because Rudra itself is TIME, hence the title Kālāya Namaha“कालाय नमः” TA10.18 meaning, I bow to you oh time. This finally landed in Svetasvatara Upaniṣhad wherein it says “अन्त:काले सञ्चुकोच”SU3.2 meaning He dissolves all beings into Him at end of time. Similarly, the association of Agni with time is clear in Muṇḍakopaniṣad with the title Kāli. Kāli is the motherly aspect of Kālam and is not just “darkness” it also means the power of time, and the association with darkness is to denote the dissolution which swallows everything, very similar to the term (not concept) blackhole. One might consider both past and future to be non-existential, however, though non-accessible in this dimension, the same Upaniṣhad says “संयोगनिमित्तहेतुः त्रिकालात् परः अकलः अपि दृष्टः”SU6.5 meaning when one beheld in witness of Rudra, know He is the cause and the beginning of all causes; beyond the past, present and the future and he is not a part of it. Śrī Kṛṣṇa says to Yudhishthira in Mahābhāratam Anushasnika parvam 161.11 that Rudra is the past, the present, and the future, the exact statement was repeated by Rśi Vyāsa in Drona Parva 202. Maharśi Vaśiṣṭha’s Ramayana speaks extensively on the accessibility of time through dimensions beyond the current, and how Devi Sarasvatī takes her devotee across time to make her witness the past, present and future unfold at the same instance. This is why Maharśi Vaśiṣṭha says “only concepts like Shiva go beyond time”.

Agni is the first cook in all homes AV19.55, and he is the fundamental element that digests our food and disintegrates our bodies at the end. Not just Rudra, Agni encompasses all divinities. The vocabulary used to describe Rudra and Agni is identical to the Mitra-Varuna duo. Agni is speech since He is a celestial priest (Hotar RV4.3.1) who recites the hymns RV1.1.1, He is the transmitter of Sacrifice of Yajñá (medha) RV1.38,5.60, He holds the life and immortality in His hands RV7.4.6 as he is the deliverer of Soma to Devas. Then who is the lord or hymns? Who is the lord and King of Medha/Adhvar (sacrifice)? Who is the distributor of this sacrifice? Who is the lord of Soma? It is Rudra, as He is “gātha-patim” the lord of all hymns and “medha-patim” RV1.43 the lord of sacrifice, and “rā́jānam adhvarásya hótāraṁ satyayájaṁ ródasyoḥ” RV4.3.1 the king of Sacrifice and the true priest of Heaven and Earth. He is“brahmānaspatim” RV1.38.13 the lord of knowledge (omniscient) and “súmakhāya havirdé” RV4.3.7 the distributer of sacrifice. Now, what does this mean to Agni if Rudra is the lord of both hymns and sacrifice? Well, the same Rig Veda answers this when it says “rudráṁ yajñā́nāṁ sā́dhadiṣṭim apásām” RV3.2.5 which means, Agni you are the Rudra of Sacrifice and the one who leads the sacrifice. If Rudra manifests in Agni as both Rudra and Sivā, what about other titles of Rudra like Pasupati, Sarva, and more? Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa Kanda 1.7-Brahmana 3 says “agnirvai sa devastasyaitāni nāmāni śarva iti yathā prācyā ācakṣate bhava iti yathā bāhīkāḥ paśūnām patī rudro’gniriti meaning Oh Agni you are the divine who is called by those of the east (prācyā) as śarva and by bāhīkāḥ as Bhava and then Paśūpati and also Rudra and Agni. This is why Agni and Rudra are conjoined divinities who cannot be separated out so easily, very similar to Rudra-Soma or Rudra-Bhava. Here the goal is not to conclude Agni = Rudra or Rudra = epithet of Agni and be done with it, because Agni encompasses many divinities just like Rudra, and Rudra is an epithet of many other divinities and not limited to Agni, Soma and Prajapti. It is to confirm this very notion, Rig Veda made it very clear that Rudra is an independent and sovergn Divinity1. Hence, the intent in exploring Vedas is not to draw boundries as a contest among them, but to cherish the magnificent diversity, yet seek their union/solidarity in ṛta.
[1: Rig Veda 7.46.2 / 2.33.9 / 1.166.2, Svetasvatara Upaniṣhad 1.11]

The Brahmāṇa of Taittirīya Śākhā’s Śatarudrāya states in its opening hymns that Agni is Rudra when the sacrifice is submitted into the Yajñá – meaning, based on the cause and event, Agni becomes Rudra SB1.7.3.8. Agni is the one who transmutes and causes change. Addressing Rudra Sri Aurobindo said, “He who both destroys and restructures Creation and propels Creation forward”. This is why the third eye of trayambaka-Rudra is called Agni. Śrī Rudram of the Taittirīya Saṃhitā, again and again, urges Rudra’s missiles not to hit us; the same Veda urges Agni – the heat of those missiles – not to harm us, but to be auspicious for us TS4.61 , this statement concurs with the story of Tripurasura in Mahābhāratam Karna Parva wherein Agni becomes the tip of Rudra’s missiles. The aspect of Rudra synonymous with weeping/roaring comes from the event in Taittirīya Saṃhitā 1.5.1 wherein all the knowledge and thoughts and riches were placed in Agni by the Devas in anticipation of a confrontation with the Asuras. Later, to recover their knowledge and thoughts, they harassed Agni – who roared in anger and anguish. Hence, Agni becomes Rudra. As Agni restored this knowledge back to the Devas, Prajāpati, Manu and many cosmic phenomena like metals and seasons came into being. Further prosperity was bestowed upon all when the fire of Agni was re-established, hence Rudra is called “The Intelligence/Wise”AV11.2.17; similarly, Adityas are called “The Brilliance” KYV4.4.1,5.3.6. In this way, the concept of Rudra enters Agni and, at times, Agni becomes Rudra.

Pashunampati / Pashupati / Paśūnam

We saw above how Rudra is the Lord and king of Sacrifice, Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā also describes a specific title called Pashunapati as the “Lord of Sacrifice of Pashu”; here Sacrifice of Cattle (Pashu) means to donate cattle as Dakshina during Yajñás like Rājasuya. The sacrifice of Cattle doesn’t always denote killing them, during the Vedic times human consciousness evolved towards sacrifices that do not require killing, for example:

न ता अर्वा रेणुककाटो अश्नुते न संस्कृतत्रमुप यन्ति ता अभि । उरुगायमभयं तस्य ता अनु गावो मर्तस्य वि चरन्ति यज्वनः ॥ ४
“The war-horse never catches them, they never go to the place of slaughter or sacrifice.  The Cows always roam without fear on the wide-spreading land of the mortal worshiper.”

Please note: Rig Veda 6.28 is an entire hymn dedicated to cow.

Rig Veda 6.28.4

“He replies, ‘The mother of the Rudras, the daughter of the Vasus, the sister of the Âdityas, the navel of immortality. To the people who understand me, I say, “Do not kill the guiltless cow, which is Aditi.” I kill my sin,’—thus, if he chooses to have it killed. But if he chooses to let it loose, he should say, ‘My sin has been killed. Om! Let it loose! Let it eat grass!'”

Grihya-sutra of Paraskara Sukla Yajur Veda 1.3

So, what are these Paśūs? Taittirīya Saṃhitā 3.1.4 says “पशुपतिः पशू॒नां चतुष्पदामुत च द्विपदाम्” meaning “He is Paśūspati to Paśūs that are two-footed and four-footed”. Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā 8.2.1.6 Brahmāṇa 1.2 describes 5 types of Paśūs sought by Prajāpati – man, horse, bull, ram, and goat, similarly Atharva Veda 11.2.9 defines Paśūs as cows, horses, man, goats, and sheep. But if we take dictionary definition then Paśū means cattle or animals that are tamed, or a group of creatures, or creatures used as sacrificial gifts given to rishis, scholars, and Devas. But Paśu has a broader meaning, it includes all beings who are tied to the material world in the loop called Samsara. So Paśūs are those which are in bondage or tied/fetter, hence the term Pãsha. We can notice that they both have the same root (Paśū and Pãsha). Many western scholars limit Paśu to just farmed cattle, but that would make Mahadeva’s Paśupatiastra, the most powerful weapon given to Arjuna and Sri Krishna in Mahābhārata Itihāsa, was meant to kill cattle in the war.

How did the concept of Rudra diversify into Paśūspati? Across Vedas, there are numerous instances wherein Rudra emerged and took ownership toward all Bhutas (beings) and Paśūs. Two events take high precedence, one is from Kausitaki Shankhyayana Brāhmaṇa Kanda 6.1-9 and Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa Kanda 6 Brahmāṇa 3 wherein Rudra expands into Paśūspati title by encompassing all flora/fauna. Second is the famous event of Tripurasuras from Taittirīya Saṃhitā 6.2.3 wherein Rudra claims this title. Other Brahmāṇa sections like the story of Bhutavān AB3.3.33 do talk about many exploits wherein Rudra emerges and claims this title. Since Rudra expanded as Paśūspati and claims ownership of their sacrifice, one has to take Rudra’s permission before such an act.

भव राजन् यजमानाय मृड पशूनां हि पशुपतिर् बभूथ । यः श्रद्दधाति सन्ति देवा इति चतुष्पदे द्विपदे ऽस्य मृड ॥11.2.28
Oh Bhava (भव ) you are the ruler/king (राजन् ) be gracious/favorable, pardon/spare (मृड ) towards the one hosting the Yagna (यजमानाय ) especially which donating cattle as sacrifice (पशूनां ) especially you are the one to reach (बभूथ ) being the lord of cattle (पशुपतिर् )| those who (यः ) have faith in the divine (श्रद्दधा श्रद्-दधान देवा ) view graciously (सन्ति) thus on (इति ) our four legged (चतुष्पदे ) and two legged (द्विपदे )
Please note: Yajamāna = the host of the ceremony, Adhvaryu = the one making oblations

Atharva Veda 11.2.28

Do Vedas use the term Pãsha as the bonds that tie us to material worlds? Does Rudra free the Paśūs from these Pãsha? Of course, let’s examine the Upaniṣhads and link them back to Vedic Saṃhitās.

देवं ज्ञात्वा सर्व-पाशापहानिः भवति । क्षीणैः क्लेशैः जन्ममृत्युप्रहाणिः। तस्य अभिध्यानात् देहभेदे तृतीयं विश्वैश्वर्यं च सः केवलः आप्तकामः च भवति ॥ 1.11
With the knowledge (ज्ञात्व) of the divine (देवं) all (सर्व) bondages/fetters (पाशा) looses (हानि) its existiance (भवति) | With the depletion (क्षीणै) of disturbances in mind (क्लेशैः) and knowledge all the cycle of birth (जन्म) and death (मृत्यु) ceases ((हानि)) | Therefore (तस्य) through meditative (ध्याना) states overcome bodily desires and changes (देह-भेदे) and enter into the Turiya (तृतीयं) state (third state) and (च) in turn realizes that/His (सः) Sovereign Authority of entirety (विश्वैश्वर्यं). In this state one alone (केवलः) exists without a second, and all notion of self and its desires reach completion (आप्तकामः).

घृतात् परं मण्डम् इव अतिसूक्ष्मं शिवं सर्वभूतेषु गूढं ज्ञात्वा विश्वस्य एकं परिवेष्टितारं देवं ज्ञात्वा सर्वपाशैः मुच्यते॥4.16

like the cream (मण्डम् ) above (परं) the clarified butter (घृतात्) the hidden within (गूढम् ) in all beings/existences (सर्व+भूतेषु ), Knowing (ज्ञात्वा ) him who is exceedingly (अति) subtle (सूक्ष्मं ) who is Sivam/the auspecious one (शिवं ) in all, knowing (ज्ञात्वा ) that divine (देवं ) who along (एकं ) encompasses all (विश्वस्य परिवेष्टितारं ), one is released (मुच्यते) from every bondage (सर्व+पाशैः ).

Svetasvatara Upaniṣhad 1.11/ 4.16

This is not the only statement, Svetasvatara Upaniṣhad 1.8, 4.15-16, 6.13 and Taittirīya Āraṇyaka 10.47.74 talk about releasing oneself from Pãsha in clear details.

Cries – Makes us Cry – Makes others Cry – Removes our Cry

We keep seeing these contradictions in Rudra. ‘Rud’ means weep/cry/roar, Rudra as defined by Br̥hadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad 3.9.4 is the one who causes us to weep, which is his feared aspect. In contradiction, all three profound commentators Sāyaṇācārya, Bhattabhaskara, and Abhinavasankara defined Rudra as रुदं द्रावयतीति इति रुद्र, meaning the one who removes the cause of our grief is Rudra. Adi Śankaracharya also defined Rudra in multiple ways in his Vishnu Sahasranama Bashya, few of them are:

“He who gives voice (Rud, the first cry at birth, when all vayu enters our body and the first breath is taken) so he is Rudra”
“He who makes others cry during their dissolution, hence he is called Rudra”
He who destroyed suffering and it’s cause, is Rudra”
“He who dispells our crying/sorrows is Rudra”

Adi Śankaracharya Vishu Sahasranama Bashya.

These 3 aspects of Rudra (Cry, makes us cry, and removes our cries) is perfectly captured in Mahābhāratam Harivamsha Parva Section 2.74 in which Sri Krishna says: “रुद्रो देव त्वं रुदनाद् रावणाञ्च रोरुयमाणो द्रावणाच्चवातिदेवः” meaning “oh divine Rudra it’s your cry, makes other cry and removes our cry”. Let’s go into the Vedas to find its linkage. Vayu is the very source of wind, air, and this intern is the Prāṇā (lifeforce). Br̥hadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad 3.9.4 clearly says that Rudra is the 10 Prāṇās and when these Prāṇās departs all relatives cry (Rud). Prajapati in Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa says to the child with the “first cry” as arodīt, meaning the Prāṇā has now entered the body and the child has grasped its first breath. So both, when Prāṇā departs and when Prāṇā enters its Rudra. What about Rudra being the remover of our sorrow (cry), Rig Veda Saṃhitās 6.74.4 says, “Oh Soma Rudra free us/liberate us from the tethers of Vayu” because it’s Vayu what tethers this body and its life and that very Prāṇā is Rudra, and its the same Rudra that can liberate us from this tether of Vayu. How does Vayu become Prāṇā? By drinking Soma, as he is the first to drink Soma RV4.46.1, the life making elixir of all. One can compare this with the hymn is given by Rśi Vaśiṣṭha famously known as Maha Mrityunjaya Mantra in Rig Veda 7.59 and Kṛṣṇa Yajur Veda Taittirīya Saṃhitā 1.8 which asks Rudra “May you untie our bonds like a ripened gourd fruit unties itself from the stem, and take us beyond death and deplete our compulsions and take us into the immortal state”. One has to take note of how synchronous and consistent various Rishis/Ṛṣi have been when they addressed Rudra.

The fire/Agni is Rudra; He is born when the Agni:Homa is completely piled up with sacrifice; just as a calf desires its mothers teat on birth, so He (Rudra) seeks His portion; if he were not to offer a libation to Him, He would consume the Adhvaryu (performer of Homa) and the sacrificer. He offers the Çatarudriya (oblation); verily he appeases Him with his own portion; neither Adhvaryu nor sacrificer goes to ruin. TS 5.4.3

Kṛṣṇa Yajur Veda Taittirīya Saṃhitā 5.4.3/

Please note from what we was about Rudra and Vayu, made many later scholars consider Hanuman, the son of Vayu as one of the Rudra. Now, let’s look at the system of linkage that evolves from Yajur Veda Taittirīya Saṃhitā to Śatapatha Brahmāṇa to Atharva Veda and finally the clarity with which it ended in the Upaniṣhad.

यो रुद्रो अग्नौ यो अप्सु य ओषधीषु यो रुद्रो विश्वा भुवनाविवेश तस्मै रुद्राय नमो अस्त्वाहुतिभागा
Its you (यो ) Rudra (रुद्रो) is Agni (अग्नौ), in the waters, herbs/medicinal plants (ओषधी), entirety (इमा -विश्वा ) and its worlds (भुवन), salutations to that (तस्मै) Rudra to whom we submit your share (भागा ) fire oblations (आहुति). TS 5.5.9

यो अग्नौ रुद्रो यो अप्स्व् अन्तर् य ओषधीर् वीरुध आविवेश । य इमाविश्वा भुवनानि चक्लृपे तस्मै रुद्राय नमोऽस्त्वग्नये ।। AV 7.87
Its you Rudra (रुद्रो) who is (यो) in Agni (अग्नौ), who dwells in waters and floods, to Rudra who hath entered into herbs/medicinal plants (ओषधी +र्वीरुध ) , to Him who formed and fashioned all these entirety (इमा -विश्वा ) and its worlds (भुवन), to this (तस्मै) Rudra, we give our homage (स्त्वग्नये) and salutations (नमो) AV 7.87.1

Prajāpati held this child and said “my son you are Rudra” (the first roar/sound). This boy could not be contained and wished to encompass everything and so said, “with my name I have to become greater” and asked for another name. Prajāpati said: you are Sarva, water became him, as Paśūpati, from him emerged flora/fauna/plants. As Ugra (the fierce one), Vayu/Wind/Air became him. As Aśani, lightning/thunder, as Bhava, the rain, as Mahādeva, the highest Divinity, and the moon (Soma) became him, as īśhana (the authority/the ruler), the Sun became him. ~Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa 6.3

यो देवोऽग्नौ योऽप्सु यो विश्वं भुवनमाविवेश। य ओषधीषु यो वनस्पतिषु तस्मै देवाय नमो नमः॥ Svetasvatara Upaniṣhad 2.17
that Divinity (देव) who is (यो) in the fire (अग्नौ), who is (यो) in the water (अप्सु), who is (यो) in the plants/herbs/medicens (ओषधीषु), who is (यो) in the forests/trees (वनस्पतिषु), who has (य) pervaded/encompasses (आविवेश) all that exists and all its celestial dimensions (विश्वम् भुवनम्) to that divine (तस्मै देवाय) I surrender and salute again and again (नमो नमः) Svetasvatara Upaniṣhad 2.17

तत् एव अग्निः तत् आदित्यः तत् वायुः तत् उ चन्द्रमाः तत् एव शुक्रम् तत् ब्रह्म तत् आपः तत् प्रजापतिः॥ SV 3.2
That (तत्) itself is (एव ) the fire (अग्निः) and is that billiance of Sun (आदित्यः) and is that air/wind (वायु) and is the moon (चन्द्रमाः ); that itself is self-luminous (शुक्रम् ), is that whole/infinite Brahman (ब्रह्म ), That itself is that waters (आप), and the source and origin to all progeny (प्रजापति) ~Svetasvatara Upaniṣhad 3.2

Kṛṣṇa Yajur Veda Taittirīya Saṃhitā 5.5.9 & Atharva Veda 7.87.1 & Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa Kanda 6 Brahmāṇa 3 (6.1.3.10-17) & Svetasvatara Upaniṣhad 2.17 / 3.2

“One should fill the Agni:Homa with sacrifice.” The fire is Rudra, and it is as if one stirs up a sleeping lion. TS 5.4.10
The fire is Rudra, His are three missiles, one that comes straight on, one that strikes transversely, and one that follows up. Having piled the fire he should give a bow with three arrows to a Brahman, unasked; verily to them, he pays homage and offers himself. Agni is Rudra; just as a tiger stands in anger, so He also stands; when the Yagna Fire is filled with these, he reverences him; verily with homage, he soothes Rudra. TS 5.5.7

Kṛṣṇa Yajur Veda Taittirīya Saṃhitā 5.4.10/5.5.7

सहस्राक्षम् अतिपश्यं पुरस्ताद् रुद्रम् अस्यन्तं बहुधा विपश्चितम्।मोपाराम जिह्वयेयमानम् ॥AV 11.2.17
Oh Rudra (रुद्र), thousand-eyed (सहस्राक्षम्) overseeing all /all-seeing through and through/directly (अति + पश्यसि + पुरस्तात्), at the end of our Yagna’s chanting Anuvākam (अस्य) Oh Multifold (बहुधा) wise (विपश्चित्) with prudent tough/divine speech ( जिह्व) gone after (येय) even and respectful ( मानम् )

Atharva Veda 11.2.17

Agnir vai rudrah III-239
Agni is Rudra Mahāvira II-226
Agni is Rudra Mahāvira and that is the Sun III-233, 238 (mantra: jatavedas; pose: asau va adityo rudro Mahāviras)
Fire is speech, the Sun is the eye. (Both are Pranas, therefore) the Sun is the fire (on Earth) and that fire (in the Sun). The two eyes (of Rudra) he praises thus.
This implies a further identification of the heavenly eye (the Sun) and the mundane one (the fire) with the eyes of Rudra III-219

Caraka-Katha Āraṇyaka, Harvard Oriental Series 65, Michael Witzel

The Enforcer, Punisher and Authoritarian

Hymns sing to Rudras and Maruts as Earth-shaking clans feared by all lokas and are the only Divinities feared greatly by Rishis/Rśi. Since the Vedas revolve around Yajñá, the aspect of fear is seen in the discipline, devotion, and secrecy of the Yajamana and Adhvaryu towards their Dikṣhā (initiation and sanctity), meaning the one hosting the Yajñá and the one performing/chanting the mantras in the proper order (Ardhaka), else Rudra brings forth His wrath and consumes themTS1.6.7. Both sages and commoners feared the wrath of Rudras, but they knew that Rudras were not malicious. They understood the compassionate hand of the Rudras, hence they reached out to Rudras for protection, medicines, health, boons to bear children, boons to get a loving spouse, for wealth and prosperity VS3.57-59,RV6.74.1 like the hymn that says “Oh Rudra, harm us not, and abandon us not”RV7.46.5. But one has to ask, why Rudra? Why not Indra or Agni or Soma? Let’s see a few such examples of his fearful aspect of Rudra when it comes to Yajñá by traversing Atharva Veda to Yajur and finally to Rig Veda:

अस्त्रा नीलशिखण्डेन सहस्राक्षेण वाजिना । रुद्रेणार्धकघातिना तेन मा सम् अरामहि ॥11.2.7
Oh Rudra (रुद्र), with powerful/swift/impetuous (वाजिना ) mighty weapons (अस्त्र), with dark hair and chest (शिखण्ड) (or) Bluish-Black turf ((नील +शिख) , thousand eyes (सहस्राक्ष ) (or) dwelling in thousand places (सहस्र + क्षेण ), and inflictor/slayer (घातिन्) of Ardhaka (अर्धक), in this way (तेन ) one who alters (altering) and is improper (अराम ) chants the mantras (अर्धक)
Please note: Ardhaka (अर्धक) means improper utterance of Vedic mantras. शिखण्ड = Chest and शिख = Turf at the crown of the head. सहस्र + क्षेण = thousand places. सहस्राक्ष = thousand eyes. क्षयण  = destruction and annihilation

यो अन्तरिक्षे तिष्ठति विष्टभितो ऽयज्वनः प्रमृणन् देवपीयून् । तस्मै नमो दशभिः शक्वरीभिः ॥11.2.23
The one who (यो ) dwells and establishes oneself firmly (तिष्ठति + विष्टभित) among the sky (अन्तरिक्षे) destroys (प्रमृण) those who do not-sacrifice/insulting Divinities (अ-यज्वन् – देवपीयून् ) salutation and homage (नमो ) to the anger/fierce one (तस्मै ) we sign thy with ten (दशभिः ) hymns of Śākvara-Sāman (शक्वरीभिः )
अन्तरिक्षे = intermediator regions between Earth and Heavenly realms

भव राजन् यजमानाय मृड पशूनां हि पशुपतिर् बभूथ । यः श्रद्दधाति सन्ति देवा इति चतुष्पदे द्विपदे ऽस्य मृड ॥11.2.28
Oh Bhava (भव ) you are the ruler/king (राजन् ) be gracious/favorable, pardon/spare (मृड ) towards the one hosting the Yagna (यजमानाय ) especially which donating cattle as sacrifice (पशूनां ) especially you are the one to reach (बभूथ ) being the lord of cattle (पशुपतिर् )| those who (यः ) have faith in the divine (श्रद्दधा श्रद्-दधान देवा ) view graciously (सन्ति) thus on (इति ) our four legged (चतुष्पदे ) and two legged (द्विपदे )
Please note: Yajamāna = the host of the ceremony, Adhvaryu = the one making oblations

Atharva Veda 11.2.7/23

Let’s visit one of the long-lost Vedic Śākhā, the Caraka-Katha Śākhā which gave forth Katha Upaniṣhad. Katha Śākhā has its own Saṃhitās, Brahmana, and Āraṇyaka which many like the German researcher Michael Witzel conclude to be earlier than the Tairtreya Śākhā of Kṛṣṇa Yajur. Like any Āraṇyaka, it primarily revolves around a particular aspect of Yajñá, so Katha Āraṇyaka too revolves around the concept of Pravargya which is a Soma ritual. As Michael Witzel says:

Book pg200: Katha Aranyaka Manuscript, Kashmir, Critical Edition Harvard Oriental Series 65 Edited. Translated by Michael Witzel.jpg

As an Aranyaka, it contains the secret doctrine of its particular Veda School (Sakha) and has to be studied in the wilderness (aranya). In the Katha Aranyaka, this is the Pravargya, a ritual in which a blazing clay vessel (mahavira) is identified with the Sun and Rudra Mahavira. This ritual also aims at giving the sponsor of the ritual (Yajamana) a new, heavenly body. This is established by multiple Upanishad-like identification between various entities of microcosm (man), ritual (Yajna), and macrocosm.

Please note: this heavenly body is a subtle body to ascend to heavens (sargo vai loka auttaravedikas III 233: 91.1-2)

An Aranyaka usually contains, as its nucleus, the most dangerous ritual held in highest esteem in a particular branch of the Veda. In the Rig Veda Aranyaka, it is the Mahavrata ceremony, the culmination of the one year gavam ayana Sattra ritual. In the Yajur Veda, however , it is the Pravargya ritual that is given this kind of special attention.

One of the foremost features of the Pravargya ritual is its dangerous appearance as a glowing vessel identified with the Sun and with Rudra Mahavira (II 89,II 100, III 207, 233, 238). The vessel is connected with Rudra, as it is baked by the sun (II 22, CF. II 89) udvāsana of the utensil takes place in the shape of the Sun (II151-54) further, the heated vessel is round like the Sun and glows like it. The red-hot vessel threatens all beings and even Heaven and Earth. Special protection is necessary for the priest (II 80sqq., II 180, 182-183), for the yajamāna (III 150, 173-76, etc.), for his wife (III 207, 177), even for the further offspring of the yajamāna (II 38, III 207), which otherwise would be born blind.

There also is a whole section on expiating (prayāŚcitti), aiming at the protection of the yajamāna from Rudra (III 235 sqq). The yajamāna retains long life when atoning for an accidental boiling over of the gharma vessel, or when atoning for thunder (sorrow), rain falling during the Pravargya ritual (hitting by a vajra), or setting of the Sun (back luck) while the Pravargay still is underway.

A priest (brahmana) who wants to spoil his own yajamāna for one reason or the another just has to alter one syllable…. Even the smallest mistake in ritual might lead to disaster: if certian mantras would be said loudly, Rudra would kill the yajamāna’s cattle (II 128A, cf. III 229).

Caraka-Katha Aranyaka, Harvard Oriental Series 65, Michael Witzel

In the Katha Āraṇyaka‘s Pravargya ritual (Yajñá) the vessel (kalasha) used is called the Mahavira which is Identified with the brilliance of the Sun and Rudra as Rudra-Mahavira and so have to be performed very carefully after extended teachings and diksha (initiation and sanctity). Even during the Yagna any mistakes or mishaps have to be atoned else Rudra becomes the punisher, and can become Yama (death).

So, coming to our question, why Rudra? Because Rudra punishes Ardhaka (improper chanting) of Vedic Mantra and the sanctity of sacrifice of Yajñá and Divinities? Well the same Atharva Veda Chapter 11.2.17 in its very beginning answers this question and is well justified in Rig Veda 10.125.6

सहस्राक्षम् अतिपश्यं पुरस्ताद् रुद्रम् अस्यन्तं बहुधा विपश्चितम्।मोपाराम जिह्वयेयमानम् ॥AV 11.2.17
Oh Rudra (रुद्र), thousand-eyed (सहस्राक्षम्) overseeing all /all-seeing through and through/directly (अति + पश्यसि + पुरस्तात्), at the end of our Yagna’s chanting Anuvākam (अस्य) Oh Multifold (बहुधा) wise (विपश्चित्) with prudent tough/divine speech ( जिह्व) gone after (येय) even and respectful ( मानम् )

Atharva Veda 11.2.17

Now, let’s evaluate Rudra’s divine speech aspect of Atharva Veda with Rig Veda.

अहं रुद्राय धनुरा तनोमि ब्रह्मद्विषे शरवे हन्तवा 10.125.6
I (अहं) (Vac the divine speech) (अहं) Rudra’s (रुद्राय) Bow (धनुरा) bend/stretch the bow string (तनोति) towards those who hostile to the sacred knowledge (ब्रह्म – द्विष्) swiftly (शर – वेग) to eliminate/kill (हन्तव्य)

Rig Veda Mandala 10.125.6

Still, why Rudra? After reading the above we should pose more serious questions, we know Rudra punishes those who perform improper Yagna, and since Agni is the Hotr/the priest, and Agni is the Vedic Speech, Agni is the sacrificial fire, and Agni is the one who takes the Sacrifice of Yajna, then what does Rudra do with this sacrifice? Well, we might say Rudra is the Lord of that sacrifice and the lord of all Hymns, so Rudra receiving all the sacrifice of Yagna and all the Vedic mantras, but wait, isn’t Rudra the one who receives the remnant of the sacrifice? Yes, in many cases so that he can restart the Yagna treating the remnant as a whole. What about Soma, does He receive it and compete for Soma like Indra and others? No, Rudra is already conjoined with Soma. Then will Rudra distribute this sacrifice? Will Rudra decide what the Yajamana (Owner of Yajna) will receive? Well one might say, Rudra is Agni and Agni is Rudra and they both are the same, if so, then why does Agni become Rudra? Rather the correct question is, why does Rudra manifest in Agni? We asked a lot of serious questions so let’s see what Rig Veda and Yajur Veda has to say:

gātha-patim = Rudra the resort to all hymns/songs; medha-patim = Rudra the resort of Yajñá/Sacrifice/Oblations RV 1.43

Thou, Oh Agni, art Rudra, the Asura of the mighty sky, Rudra, lord of the sacrifice TS 1.3.14, 1.4.11

कथा महे पुष्टिम्भराय पूष्णे कद्रुद्राय सुमखाय हविर्दे
kathā́ mahé puṣṭimbharā́ya pūṣṇé b kád rudrā́ya súmakhāya havirdé
To the great Pushan (पूष्णे) bestower of abundane (पुष्टि), and to that Rudra (कद्रुद्राय = kád+Rudra), the high-sprited/energitic (सुमख) distributer of sacrifice (हविर्दे). RV4.3.7

कद्धिष्ण्यासु वृधसानो अग्ने कद्वाताय प्रतवसे शुभंये परिज्मने नासत्याय क्षे ब्रवः कदग्ने रुद्राय नृघ्ने RV 4.3.6
kád dhíṣṇyāsu vr̥dhasānó agne kád vātāya prátavase śubhaṁyé párijmane nā́satyāya kṣé brávaḥ kád agne rudrā́ya nr̥ghné
Oh Agni (अग्ने) we implore, blazing high (वृधसान) from the dhíṣṇyā side of the Yajna alter, with powerful force (प्रतवस्) like wind (द्वात ) added to fire (कद्वाताय = kád+vātā +ya, ) lifing/raising up (शुभंया), encompassing the ground and surrounding the fire-alter/or Earth (परिज्मन् क्षे), what shall you (कदग्ने = kád+agne) say/tell to the dreadfull punisher (नृघ्ने) Rudra (of those who have perfomed improper Yagna/chant and who is the distributer of havis/sacrifice RV4.3.7).
Please note: कद्वाताय = adding stong wind, in this case its to fire. Similar to पश्चाद्वात = winds blowing to the west side.

Kṛṣṇa Yajur Veda Taittirīya Saṃhitā 1.3.14, 1.4.11 / Rig Veda 1.43, 4.3.6-7

Let’s visit Mahābhārata Itihāsam Section 285:

Thou art the beginning and thou art the end of the Vedas, thou art the Gāyatri and thou art OM. Thou art the fire upon which the sacrificial butter/ghee is poured. Thou art he who pours the ghee. Thou art he in honor of whom the ghee is poured, thou art the butter itself that is poured. Thou art those section of Brahmanas that are called Trisuparna, thou art all the Vedas, thou art the section called Śatarudrīya in the Yajushes/Yajur. Thou art holiest of holies, auspicious of auspicious things. Thou animates the inanimate body. Thou art the Chit that dwell in the human form.

Mahābhāratam Moksha Dharma Parva Section 285

The birth of Rudra and Gāyatrī

Now, let us look at a metaphysical event of Prajāpati’s Yajñá from both Rig Veda Bhaskala Śākhā Kausitaki Shankhyayana Brāhmaṇa Kanda 6.1-9 and Sukla Yajur Veda Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa Kanda 6 Brahmāṇa 3 (6.1.3.10-17). We will explore the events from Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa and contrast it with Kausitaki Brāhmaṇa.
In the beginning, Prajāpati was alone. He desired “may I multiply”. Upon His practicing austerity, there emerged fumes called Tapo:dhuma, from which came water (This statement matches Vrita Suktam of Atharva Veda chap15). Water wished to flourish, upon austerity came foam; foam wished to flourish and upon austerity came clay. In this way each desired to be more and so performed austerity in the following order: water > foam > clay > sand > pebbles > stone > metal ore > gold > Akṣarā (imperishable syllables/sounds). Since this bloomed into eight-folds, the 8-syllable Gāyatrī emerge. All these became the foundation for Bhumi, which spread out (prath), hence became Pṛthvī. However, in Kausitaki Brāhmaṇa only 5 emerge, which are Agni, Vayu, Adityas, Chandrama, and Uṣas. Going back to Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, all continued their austerity for a Sāṃvatsara, meaning one year, and upon its dawn (Uṣas/Auṣasī) arose a child, meaning the union of Sāṃvatsara and Uṣas gave birth to a child. Upon birth, this child cried (arodīt); Prajāpati held this child and said “my son you are Rudra” (the first roar/sound). This is why Rudra is the primordial roar. Hence, please note that Rudra didn’t come as the boy, this boy was called Rudra. This boy could not be contained and wished to encompass everything and so said, “with my name I have to become greater” and asked for another name.
Prajāpati said “you are Śarva” and so the water became him, the boy grew in greatness and kept asking for more names.
He was named Paśūpati, from him emerged flora/fauna.
He was named Ugra (the fierce one), Vayu/Wind/Air became him.
He was named Aśani, lightning became him and so did thunder.
He was named Bhava, the rain became him and the Divinity of rain is Parjanya.
He was named Mahādeva, the highest Divinity, and the moon (Soma) became him; hence He, Mahādeva with a moon on his head.
He was named īśhana (the authority/the ruler), the Sun became him (hence the title Mīḍhuṣṭama/मीढुष्टम meaning Sun in Taittirīya Saṃhitā 4.5.5).

In Kausitaki Brāhmaṇa, the event is very similar, except the boy emerges with thousand eyes, feet, and weapons. The names given to the child are also the same, except for the order. The order starts with Bhava (Water), Śarva (Fire), Paśūpati (Animals), Ugra (Plants), Mahādeva (Sun), Rudra (Moon), īśhana (food), and Aśani (Rain/Thunder/Lightning).

Please Note: Rudra here is the Agni itself. And Aśani the thunder becomes the power of Indra. Mahābhāratam 7.175.96 specifies the weapon/missile of Rudra as “aṣṭacakrāṃ mahāghorāmaśaniṃ rudranirmitām“. The Saṃhitā portion of Atharva Veda 15th Kanda 18th Prayāya, known as Vrātyas Suktam state 7 of the above title, and the only name missing is Aśani, as if Aśani is centered among the 7. Kṛṣṇa Yajur Veda Taittirīya Saṃhitā 4.5.5 use the same names except for Aśani, so these titles are not new, nor limited to Brahmāṇa sections. When this nameless boy entered all aspects of creation and became creation itself. A much detailed event can be seen in the upcoming event of Śatarudrīya.

In the context of the Yajñá, which was performed for one full year (Sāṃvatsara) and at the end of which arose new dawn (Uṣas), from this fire-altar/Agni came all 8 forms of Rudra. These 8 forms are called the Astamurti Tatva. Together, the Agni/fire-altar, the boy, and the 8 forms of Rudra are the 3-fold state of Agni:homa. These 8 forms are the eight syllables of Gāyatrī. Since Gāyatrī is sung in 3 padas (steps) the metre is 8×3=24. In the prominent Śatarudrīya Yajñá, Prajāpati sings Sāmans like Gāyatra using the Gāyatri metre. He does so while circling around the altar three times (pradakṣiṇa) with the altar being on his right, indicating its highest stature. Among the 70 Svayambhu Liṅgas, Mritakeśwara takes the 35th position in the list and is called Gāyatrī, and also gave rise to Gāyatrī Rahsyopnishad (one of minor Upaniṣhads emulating that Rudra/Siva as the Devata of Gāyatrī/Gāyatra Mantra). Mahābhāratam Dharma Parva Section 285 (Jaya section) concurs with this by saying “Thou art the beginning and thou art the end of the Vedas, thou art the Gāyatri and thou art OM.” Now we continue into the next chapter, Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā 8.2.3.6 Brahmāṇa 1. Since the child became free (Swa) and became all (roar/sound, water, wind, living beings, lightning, rain, Soma/moon & Sun), his father the Prajāpati searched for him in Agni and in Paśūs (Puruṣa, horse, bull, ram, he-goat) but the boy was not found (Apaśyat). There was only Agni, so Prajāpati realized that everything was Agnihotra. This event of the Yajñá explains the raw, unmanifested nature of Rudra who can exist in all, the innate self of all. His three eyes are Soma, Agni, and Surya and He wears a crescent moon on His head. He is “Maha” of Devas and He is īśha (the authority) and He is Swa (free/sovereign); hence He is Maheśwara (Maha + īśha + Swa)TA10.12.28/DP203, the highest of names (paranama VS10.2 and “mahó mahī́ṁ ..gr̥ṇīmási tveṣáṁ rudrásya nā́ma” RV2.33.8)

May that (प्र) reddish brown, tawny one (बभ्रु + वे), mighty chief (वृषभ), white & pure (श्वितीचि) one with highest (महो) greatness (महीं) receive our beautiful hyms in your praise (सुष्टुतिम).
as our homage (नमस्या)
I offer my oblation and glorify (गृणीम) to your splendid and brillent (कल्मलीकि) Rudra’s (रुद्रस्य) magnificant/illustrious (त्वेष) name (नाम) RV 2.33.8
Note: Cow in Vedas symbolizes knowledge and Bull symbolizes strength and leadership.

Oh Prajāpati, none other than thee to comprehend all that is created and its forms, to fulfill our heart’s desire; I offer my oblations to thee, you are father and thy sire?
Praise to that Rudra, the abode/lord of all riches, most vital highest of names, I offer my oblations to thee! VS 10.20

Rig Veda 2.33.8 / Sukla Yajur Veda Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā 10.20

How many Rudras?
Rudra is Un-Manifested / Raw / “That which is Not”

He whose name is unknown and whose name is not uttered AB3.34 and He who is unknown to the Devas after they ascended to the heavenly realm and noticed an entity with Sun-like luster (adityavarnam) walking around KA2.100sqq. Rudra is not a name, nor a title, Rudra is an acclamation as He can be anything and everything, since one cannot single out Rudra as a unipolar personality nor can one iconify him, hence there is no count to Rudras, but wait how can that be? The diversity in counting Rudras is taken into consideration during the Yajñá in the discussion. For example, Kṛṣṇa Yajur Veda Taittirīya Saṃhitā 1.4.11 states “three and thirty in troops”; at the same time it says “eleven are seated on waters”. When Vedic metre is considered, Rudras are associated with Triṣṭubh which has 11 syllables multiplied by 4 steps, hence Śrī Rudram of the Kṛṣṇa Yajur Veda describes 11 homages to Rudra. Similarly, Śatarudriya of the Sukla Yajur Veda mentions 6 Rudras with Triṣṭubh Metre, and gives 6 X 11 = 66 homages to 100 Rudras. The same Śatarudriya 16.54 states that Rudra manifests in all and so there are innumerable thousands of Rudras. Taittirīya Saṃhitā 4.5 talks about 1000 Rudras covering the Earth with 100 bows and 100 arrows. Yoga/Ramayana of Ṛṣi Vaśiṣṭha describes 100 Rudras yet says Rudras expand infinitely, whereas the Mahābhārata Itihāsam in its Drona Parva-Nārāyaṇastra-Mokshana Parva 203 says “Infinite Rudras”. In terms of creation being unfolded both Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa and Kausitaki Brāhmaṇa talk about 8 expansions Bhava, Śarva, Paśūpati, Ugra, Mahādeva, Rudra, īśhana, and Aśani. When offering of sacrifice during Yajñá is in the discussion, Atharva Veda 15.5 talks about 7 intermediator/intermediate spaces in different directions – Bhāva to the Eastern, Śarvā to Southern, Paśūpati to Western, Ugra/Aghora to Northern, Rudra towards nadir or below regions, Mahādeva to the upper regions of the sky/zenith and īśhana towards all directions. When associated with the human body, especially performed during Aṅganyāsa (अङ्गन्यास) its 6 Rudras, Sharva (Śarvā) is associated with the kidneys, Bhāva with the liver, Rudra with the blood and the liver, Paśūpati, and Agni with the heart, Mahadeva with the intestines and Ugra/Aghora with the stomach/gut TS1.4.36. Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā describes 6 aspects – Bhāva, Rudra, Śarvā, Paśūpati, Nilagriva and Śitikaṇṭha. When Rudra is associated with Liṅga then five aspects are described – Sadyojata, Vamadeva, Aghora, Tatpurusha, and īśhana. Brhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣhad 3.9.4 describes 33 Types/Aspects of Divinities and among them, 11 aspects/types are of Rudras. These 11 types are divided into, 10 vital pranas that enter 5 karma-indrias and 5 jnana-indrias and the 11th is the Atman/self/mind.  So, here is the key: depending on the cause and the event, the concept of Rudra manifests. So one has to be very attentive as the type of Rudra which resiting Rudriya. Because of this diversity and encompassing name of Rudra He is called Viṣvarūpam or Pururūpam or Virūpam (the universal or cosmic form with multiple flavors and multifold) or Viśvaiśvaryam RV 2.33/TS4.5.4/TA10.23.1/SU1.11. Śrī Rudram and Śatarudriya present totality of Rudra’s omnipresence (which we will explore soon) – especially Taittirīya Saṃhitā 1.8.6, which says “एक एव रुद्र न द्वितीयाय तस्थुर्” meaning “There is only One, Rudra without a second”. This, in turn, gave a foundation to the Svetasvatara Upaniṣhad (one among the 18 primary Upaniṣhads) and also the later Atharvashiras Upaniṣhad (minor Upaniṣhad).

एको हि रुद्रो न द्वितीयाय तस्थुर्य इमांल्लोकानीशत ईशनीभिः। प्रत्यङ्जनांस्तिष्ठति सञ्चुकोचान्तकाले संसृज्य विश्वा भुवनानि गोपाः॥
There is (हि) The One (एको ) Rudrā (रुद्रो) and none (न) other than He, none can make Him second (द्विती) in being (याय) that is in existence (तस्थु:र्य) among the worlds( इमां:ल्लोका), He is the authority (ईशते) by His own authority (ईशनीभिः)| In all worlds/dimensions (भुवनानि) is His convolution and projection and guardians (संसृज् + ज्य + गोपाः) in entirety (विश्वा), He is established (तिष्ठति) in all beings (हे जनाः) as the indweller (प्रत्यङ्); and all beings (भूत्वा), at the time of final dissolution (अन्त:काले), become/withdraw into Him (सञ्चुकोच)

Svetasvatara Upaniṣhad 3.2

It’s common for the human intellect to iconify names like Rudra and limit such names with an image/form, but we saw how Rudra is not a person or a creature to iconify. It’s clear from the event of Bhutavan in Rig Veda wherein a nameless divinity arises, and again in Sukla Yajur Veda Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa a nameless boy emerges from Prajāpati’s Yajñá and expanded into 8 forms which are famously known as the Astamurti tatva, and Prajāpati says that the boy is not a mere boy (kumara) and even after searching He was nowhere to be found (Apaśyat) yet one can find Him in these eight forms (Rudra, Sarva, Paśūpati, Ugra, Aśani, Bhava, Mahādeva & īśhana). This is consistent with the nameless divinity described in Katha Āraṇyaka seen by Devatas in the heavenly realm walking with Sun-like Luster (Adityavarnam). Rudra is a nameless and formless divinity (nāma-rūpa), that is why the worship of Śiva is of a Linga which is arūpa-rūpi and Nishkala. But what better than an analogy from Chandogya Upaniṣhad Chap 6:

सदेव सोम्येदमग्र आसीदेकमेवाद्वितीयम् । तद्धैक आहुरसदेवेदमग्र आसीदेकमेवाद्वितीयं तस्मादसतः सज्जायत ॥6.2.1
कुतस्तु खलु सोम्यैवंस्यादिति होवाच कथमसतः सज्जायेतेति। सत्त्वेव सोम्येदमग्र आसीदेकमेवाद्वितीयम् ॥ 6.2.2
यथा सोम्य मधु मधुकृतो निस्तिष्ठन्ति नानात्ययानां वृक्षाणांरसान्समवहारमेकतांरसं गमयन्ति ॥ 6.9.1
ते यथा तत्र न विवेकं लभन्तेऽमुष्याहं वृक्षस्य रसोऽस्म्यमुष्याहं वृक्षस्य रसोऽस्मीत्येवमेव खलु सोम्येमाः सर्वाः प्रजाः सति सम्पद्य न विदुः सति सम्पद्यामह इति ॥
“from a single ball of clay, we can know every form made of clay, the difference in form is but the name (nāma-rūpa). In the beginning was one being, without a second, or non-being, without a second; and from that various beings came to be. Just like bees make one honey from nectars of various flowers, yet the honey do not know from which tree or flower, in the same way, all beings begotten from One Being do not know their source”
Please note: the word “Being” doesn’t mean a person nor an alien or animal, beings means “to be” or “to exist”. Existence can’t be described or iconified with in image/form within the frontier of vocabulary.

Chandogya Upaniṣhad 6.2.1/6.2.2/6.9.1/6.9.2

Though Svetasvatara Upaniṣhad is an absolute synopsis of Rudra, in this exploration we will take the path of Vedic Saṃhitās, Brahmans, and Āraṇyakas, but will use the Upaniṣhads as a culmination and Itihāsa as the climax to our analysis. According to the hymns of the Rig Veda – as Sri Aurobindo states – Rudra is the invisible force, and His arrows are Maruts, who are individual forces/phenomena that can save us, but also cause destruction to reorder creation. He manifests in the skies and in the sunlight, in the clouds and in rain, in lightning and in thunder, in the tempest (violent storm), in snow and pleasant weather. He manifests in waves, streams, and rapids and also in still waters. He is in dust, in soil, in wood, and in green leaves, He is also in thorns and dried leaves and wood. He is here and beyond and in all directions, He is of all paths and mansions. He operates from near and from far, He manifests in animate and inanimate, He manifests in terror and in pleasantness, in fortune and in destitution. He is Ugra (the terrible), yet is the source of happiness and the source of delight. He manifests in all forms and in all beings and in all groups without reservation or preference, He manifests in the learned and in the immature, He manifests in all ages and genders and physical attributes and professions. He manifests in those who inflict discomfort yet he is also the healer and the foremost doctor/physician, He is the Ruler and Lord of a multitude of diversities, and it’s he who troubles us the least and who troubles us the most (नम आक्खिदते च प्रक्खिदते च) TS4.5,VS16.5. In a single statement, Taittirīya Saṃhitā says “He is the chariot, He is the rider in the chariot, who is the charioteer and He is the maker of chariot”TS4.5.2. A similar analogy landed in Mahābhāratam which says “Thou art the fire upon which the sacrificial butter/ghee is poured. Thou art he who pours the ghee. Thou art he in honor of whom the ghee is poured, thou art the butter itself that is poured” MDP285.

Let’s come to divinities themselves, We have seen above that Agni becomes Rudra, and the same Agni becomes Śiva. Rudra enters into various aspects of Yajñá based on the cause, He manifests in waters placed in vessels called Kalasha. Rudra manifests into various aspects like in medicines, into Soma, into Winds (Vayu) as prāṇa, into Vedic syllables (Triṣṭubh/Gayatri), and so forth. The following is a perfect example of how Rudra manifests into various Divinities, this is why Rudra becomes a natural epithet to all Divinities, henceforth Rig Veda and other Vedas addressed him as Viṣvarūpam and Pururūpam and Virūpam, meaning the cosmic form or the all-encompassing omni-form RV 2.33.10/TS 4.5.4/TA 10.23.1. In the following case, Rudra manifests within Vastospati and so within Agni.

He offers ten in the same place; the Viraj has ten syllables; verily having obtained the Viraj, he makes it into a brick and piles it up; verily in the Viraj he obtains the sacrifice; the piling up must be repeated by him. Therefore that is the place of sacrifice where he advances having spent ten (nights); not suitable is the place where (he spends) less time than that, Now Vastospati is Rudra. If he were to go on without offering to Vastospati, the fire becoming Rudra would leap after him and slay him; he offers to Vastospati; verily with his own share he appeases him; the sacrificer does not come to ruin.

Kṛṣṇa Yajur Veda Taittirīya Saṃhitā 3.4.10

One other Divinity who shares similar attributes, including physical attributes, and who is addressed as the Asura of Devas, and a few very specific titles – like Rudra – is Indra. The Atharva Veda points to Indra’s role as the supreme ruler in terms of the administration of Creation and Yajñá, but there is no clear reference of him being addressed as one of the Rudras. However, both Rudra and Indra share many similar titles like Vāstoṣpati, Vrittahan, Bhutapati & Satpatim. Asani is an epithet of Rudra in the form of a thunderbolt held by Indra which is also mentioned in Mahābhāratam. Many scholars recognized Vayu as Rudra due to the distinct ability to be able to give birth to Maruts and a few acknowledge similarities to īśana (Rudra) RV 1.134. But it all becomes clear when Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa Kanda 6 Brahmāṇa 3 of Śukla Yajur Veda declares the following:

As Ugra (the fierce one), Vayu became him. As Aśani, lightning/thunder becomes him. As Bhava, the rain becomes him. As Mahādeva, the highest Divinity, and the moon (Soma) became him. As īśhana (the authority/the ruler), the Sun became him. SB 6.3

Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa Kanda 6 Brahmāṇa 3

Let’s go a little further with Vayu who is the very source of wind, air, and intern the Prāṇā. Br̥hadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad 3.9.4 clearly says that Rudra is the 10 Prāṇās and when these Prāṇās departs all relatives cry (Rud). Prajapati in Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa says to the child with the “first cry” at birth as arodīt, meaning the Prāṇā has now entered the body and the child has grasped its first breath. So both, when Prāṇā departs and when Prāṇā enters its Rudra. But why are we analyzing this? Because if we trace its root back to Rig Veda Samhitas 6.74.4 it says, “Oh Soma Rudra free us/liberate us from the tethers of Vayu” because it’s Vayu who drinks Soma first RV4.46.1 and it Vayu who tethers this body and its life as Prāṇā, which itself is Rudra, hence, its the same Rudra that can liberate us from this tether of Vayu. One can compare this statement with Rśi Vaśiṣṭha’s famous hymn titled “Maha Mrityunjaya Mantra” from both Rig Veda 7.59 and Kṛṣṇa Yajur Veda Taittirīya Saṃhitā 1.8 which asks Rudra “May you untie our bonds like a ripened gourd fruit unties itself from the stem, and take us beyond death and deplete our compulsions and take us into the immortal state”. One has to take note of how synchronous and consistent various Rishis/Ṛṣi have been when they addressed Rudra.

It is because of this ability to manifest into various divinities, especially in the most fierce aspects of divinities, that Rudra is greatly feared by Adhvaryu, sages, Ṛṣi and other Devatas during the meticulous process of Yajñá. On the other hand, the commoners fear Rudra for their cattle, their families, children, offspring, homes, and farms. But, as we discussed, Rudra becomes a polar contradiction, wherein the same sages, Ṛṣi and commoners sing to Rudra and Maruts for their protection, their wellbeing, their health, for knowledge, and for liberation from karma/death TS4.5.10. This fierce Rudra is also gentle, auspicious, friendly, a doctor who heals with His medicines, and gives immortality, a deliverer to Yama (the path of Truth), the abode of Truth (ṛta), provider of wealth VS10.20,3.57, the three-eyed liberator (Triambaka), and protector of descendants, making him the most diverse, independent, foremost (Sriṣṭhaḥ) and contradictory Divinity in entire Vedas. This Rudra is WHOLE, and not dependent on anyone, hence self-supreme (Svadhanva) and an unconditional father to all.

He as Kṣatra takes all oblation on behalf of countless Rudras. When the multitude-form of Rudra receives this sacrifice, countless Rudras enter all dimensions of reality, various beings with a multitude of aspects are pleased as they are born. Infinite Rudras emerge in all directions and from various sources and enter into all aspects of creation. Even a section of Taittirīya Āraṇyaka also knowns as the Nārāyaṇa Upaniṣhad one of minor yet famous Upaniṣhad perceives all aspects of creation in a cosmic form and called it Nārāyaṇa (by the Rśi Nārāyaṇa), exactly similar to Kṣatra and Manyu and so Rudras emerge from Nārāyaṇa, hence the saying “Narayana Rudro Jayet”.

All these aspects match well with the Puráńas that define Śiva and the Ganas that surround Him in thousands and thousands of groups and leagues TS4.5,VS16.6. They describe him as the one residing on mountains TS4.5.5/VS3.63, seated on the highest position, fair in complexion, with locks of hair, wearing deerskin TS1.8.6, handsome and muscular, with three eyes and a blue neck, holding a spear (Tri:Shula). We see the divine contradiction that He is both fierce and benevolent/adorable KYV4.5.10, ferocious yet gentle, supreme yet reachable, nourisher yet destroyer, a father to both pious and nefarious, a calm ascetic and a supreme dancer, simple yet dazzling. He is the wave and the calm sea, and many more immeasurable contradictions. As we enter into the Yajur Veda, especially into Śrī Rudram and Śatarudrīya, aspects of Rudra, Śiva, and Soma become crystal clear. But two questions remain which require a clear Verdict from Vedas, first, is Śiva just an adjective to Rudra, or is Rudra called by the very title Śiva? Second, why is Rudra of the Vedas addressed as Śiva in the Puráńas?

Who is Śiva? Who is Śankara? Is Śiva an adjective or title?

The title Śiva beings used for Rudra in various hymns denoting his “Very Nature”, meaning anything about Rudra is Śiva, and not just that, if Śiva is just an adjective then Rudra is the “highest Śiva”. What tops this list are 3 statements of Veda that are beyond mere deductions. So let’s trace our steps back from Krishna Yajur to Shukla Yajur, finally to Rig Veda. Two are from Yajur Veda Taittirīya Saṃhitā which says:

या ते रुद्र शिवा तनूः शिवा विश्वाह भेषजी | शिवा रुद्रस्य भेषजी तया नोमृड जीवसे 4.5.10.2
“yate Rudra Śivā tanuhu Śivā Vishvaha Bheshaji | Śivā Rudrasya Bheshaji
Oh Rudra you are of Śiva (auspicious) body/form. As Śivā to your the medicine/cure (भेष॒जी) to all entirety, you are eternal cure to all worldly ailments (विश्वाहभेषजी ) With that (तया) auspicious form (शिवा) you are the cure to our crying/suffering (रुद्रस्य) (samsara/avidya) medicine (भेषजी) is the relief to us all (न) jivas (जीवसे all living entities) comfort/solace (मृड).
Please note: नो मृड जी॒वसे᳚ : can also interpreted as “save our lives (जी॒वसे᳚) away (नो ) from death (मृड)”
Please note: Same hymn has its source in Sukla Yajur Veda Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā 16.49.
Note: Here Śivā is not just auspiciousness (Śiva) nor is it limited to feminine, whenever there is an emphasis on ā in such instances it represents the unified presence of both masculine and feminine.

नमः शिवाय च शिवतराय च 4.5.8
“Oṃ namaḥ śivāya cha śivātarayācha”
Salutations to that Śiva (the auspicious one), who is The most auspicious one (शिवतराय).

Kṛṣṇa Yajur Veda Taittirīya Saṃhitā 4.5

So, Rudra has Śiva form which is an auspicious form and the same Rudra is Ugra and Aghora (fierce). As Śiva, He is the cure to all living. Not only that he is Śiva, but He is also the highest Śiva (most auspicious). So Rudra’s very nature is Śiva. So, anything and everything about Rudra is Śiva. What about his fierce weapons?

यात इषुः शिवतमा शिवं बभूव तेधनुः । शिवा शरव्या या तव तया नोरुद्र मृडय ॥
Ya+ta Ishu shivatama shivam babhuva te dhanuh | Śiva sharavya ya tava taya no Rudra mrudaya
Those arrows (इषु) are of Śiva+atvam (are auspicious), and that bow is also Śivam, that quiver is also Śiva.

शिवां गिरित्र तां कुरु मा हिसीः पुरुषं जगत् ||
Śivam giritra tam Kuru ma higmsih purusham jagat
Oh Dweller of the mountains, let those arrows be Śiva towards all beings of reality.

Kṛṣṇa Yajur Veda Taittirīya Saṃhitā 4.5

Rudra is gātha-patim, meaning the resort to all hymns/songs and also medha-patim, the resort of Yajñá/Sacrifice/Oblations, so how should our oblations be?

शिवेन वचसा त्वा गिरिशाच्छा वदामसि ।
Śivena vachasa tva giri shacchavadamasi||
With auspicious words, we appeal to your oh dweller or mountains.

Kṛṣṇa Yajur Veda Taittirīya Saṃhitā 4.5

So, everything about Rudra is Śiva, but can we move back into earlier Vedas and give a definitive claim that Śiva is also a name? Shukla Yajur Veda Vajasneyi Saṃhitā 3.63 which says:

Śivo nāmāsi svadhiṣṭhite pitha namaste asthu”
my salutations to the one named Śiva (the auspicious and gracious one) the all-knowing father, harm us not”.

Shukla Yajur Veda Vajasn

What about Rig Veda, does it say Who is Śiva?

स्तोमं वो अद्य रुद्राय शिक्वसे क्षयद्वीराय नमसा दिदिष्टन येभिः शिवः स्ववाँ॑ एवयावभिर्दिवः सिषक्ति स्वयशा निकामभिः
We sing our devotional praise (स्तोमं) for you (वो) oh Rudra (रुद्राय) we show/shower (दिदिष्टन) our salutations (नमसा) oh intelligent one (शिक्व) oh ruler of men/beings/heroes/brace (क्षयद्वीरा), who is Śiva (येभिः – शिवः) with our devotion may we unite with you (सिषक्ति) oh majestic glorious one (स्वयशा) our protector (स्ववान् / स्ववाँ॑), who is swift in delivering that protection (एवयाव = swift, एवयावभिर्दिवः swift-moving/walking), oh granted of our wishes (निकाम).

Rig Veda 10.92.9

Let’s go to the most famous hymn from the Āraṇyaka:

भवाय नमः । शर्वाय नमः । शिवाय नमः । ज्वलाय नमः । आत्माय नमः । परमाय नमः । 10.16.34.16
Bhavaya Namaha | Sharvaya Namaha | Śivaya Namaha | Jwalaya Namaha | Atmaya Namaha | Paramaya Namaha |

ईशानः सर्व विद्यानामीश्वरः सर्वभूतानां ब्रह्माधिपतिर्ब्रह्मणोऽधिपतिर्ब्रह्मा शिवो मे अस्तु सदाशिवोम् ॥10.21.39.21
īśānassarva vidyānām īśvaras sarva bhūtānām brahmādhipatir brahmaṇo’dhipatir brahmā śivo me astu sadāśivom
As īśāna (5th facet of Sadaśiva) you are the holder of all knowledge (Vid), As īśvara you are the sovereign Authority towards all beings (सर्व+भूतानां ), you are the overlord of Brahma (wisdom and its creative principle), nad overlord receiver of all prayers (ब्रह्मकार) of all, He is the ever expanding Supreme consciousness (र्ब्रह्मा) which is nothing but auspecious (शिवो ) well that is (मे +अस्तु) is the eternal/infinite auspiciousness (सदा+शिवोम्).

Kṛṣṇa Yajur Veda Taittirīya Āraṇyaka 10.21.39.21 /10.16.34.16

Wandering Rudra in the heavenly realm (svargaṃ lokaṃ) with a sun-like luster/brilliance (ādityavarṇaṃ). The Devas who ascended to the heavenly realm saw and sought Rudra as to who he was (.abruvan: ko .asīti). I am Rudra (ahaṃ rudro), I am Indra (aham indro), I am the Āditya (aham indro, aham ādityo), I am divine brilliance the encompases entirity ( ahaṃ sarvasyāvayā haraso divyasyeti). The Devas claimed no offering to Rudra. He Roared fiercely towards them (rudratvam). The devas realized this and addressed him with due reverence by calling him Bhava. They said Bhava the entirety is thy Sarva. Because they said you are all this that revealed Śarva’s [prowess] as an archer. Because he then became favorable that is Śiva’s benevolence.

Caraka Katha Āraṇyaka 2.100/101

It’s obvious at this point who is Rudra and what is Śiva. Yet our mind dwells on the so-called Śankara of both Itihāsas and Puráńas. The one with a blue neck, matted hair, wearing deerskin and snakes, holding a trident (Trishul) the resident of Kashi/Varanasi, dweller of mountains and married to the daughter of those mountains (Uma). Are they all the same? Does Vedas declare that Rudra’s auspicious side is Shiva or Śankara or Dakshina Murti?

Who is Sankara?

For our second question, the answer is quite simple. The Vedas focused on the cosmic phenomenon called Ṛta and revolved around Yajñá, and used the titles that suit the nature and cosmic principle in the discussion. Hence, for Vedas, the one who is the lord of all sacrifice and all hymns should be the one to enforce the sanctity of Yajna and the sanctity of mantras (Vak). This being should be fierce yet auspicious. This being should be nameless and unknown and should devour our papa (sins), our mistakes, our wrongdoings, and our leftovers. This being should be feared yet loved by both Rishis and commoners. That entity is RUDRA.
However, the Puráńas, and Itihāsa are devotion centric, and focused on the benevolent side of Rudra-Śiva, his nourishing, healing, protecting, unconditional and blissful nature – and Śiva (the Auspiciousness One) was the most suited title.

Yet one should notice that in Itihāsa, more than the title Śiva, all 8 names (Astamurthi) are used based on the context of narration. Among them, the most used and famously known titles are Adi Yogi who is called Dakshina Murti and in this state, he is the auspicious side of Rudra who creates auspiciousness of us hence the title Samkara/Shankara (नमः शङ्क॒राय TS4.5.8) and Maheśvara. One must ask, is this is an assumed conclusion, or did the sages conclude that the auspicious side of Rudra is Dakshina Murti? Well, let’s ask the conclusion of Vedas, the Vedānta (Veda+Anta = End of Vedas):

कश्चित् भीरुः अजात इति एवं प्रपद्यते। हे रुद्र यत् ते दक्षिणं मुखं तेन मां नित्यं पाहि॥ 4.21
Oh one who is everywhere (कश्चित् भीरुः = both here no and there) the very notice/thought towards (प्रपद्यते) Him being the unborn (अजात इति एवम्) oh Rudra (हे रुद्र) your/that (यत् ते) auspicious right-hand side (दक्षिणम्) face (मुखम्) is/with which (तेन) you protect me/liberate me (माम् पाहि) ever/always (नित्यम्)

Svetasvatara Upaniṣhad 4.21

We covered Vedas and Upaniṣhad but what about the link to Itihāsa? Does it coincide with what we have explored above? An exact question was asked by Yudhishthria to Sri Krishna, so let’s see what was the reply:

Vāsudeva said, – O mighty armed Yudhishthria, listen to me as I recite thee the many names of Rudra as also the high blessedness of that high-souled one. The Rishi’s describe Mahādeva as Agni, and Sthānu, and Maheswara, as one eyed and three eyed, of universal form, and Śiva or the highly auspicious. Brāhmanas conversent with the Vedas say that the divine has two forms, again are subdivided into many forms. That form which is feirce and terrible is regarded as identical with Agni and lightening and Surya. That other form which is mind and auspicious with Righteousness and Water and Chandramas. The again, it is said that half his body is fire and half is Soma (or the moon). That form of his which is mild and auspicious is said to be engaged in the practice of the Brahmacharya vow. That other form of his which is supremely terrible is engaged in all operations of distruction in the universe. Because He is great (Mahat) and the Supreme lord of all (Ishvara), therefore is called Maheswara. And since he burns and oppresses, is keen and fierce, and endued with great energy and is engaged in eating flesh, and blood and marrow, He is said to be Rudra. Since He is the foremost of all the dieties, and since His dominion and aquisition are very extensive, and since he protects the extensive universe (creation), therefore he is called Mahādeva. Since he is of the form or color of smoke, therefore he is called Dhurjjati. Since by all His acts He performs sacrifice for all and seeks the good (welbeing) of every creature, therefore he is called Śiva or the auspicious one.

Mahābhāratam Anuśāsanica Parva Section 161 (non-jaya section)

Vyasa said”, ‘Hearing these words of the lotus-born Brahma, Maheswara became gratified. Desirous of extending his grace, he laughed aloud. The celestials then gratified (with praise) both Uma and Rudra. The arm of the thunder-wielding Sakra re-got its natural state. That foremost one of all the gods, that destroyer of Daksha’s sacrifice, that divine lord having the bull for his sign, became gratified with the gods. He is Rudra he is Siva, he is Agni, he is everything, and he hath knowledge of everything. He is Indra, he is the Wind, he is the twin Aswins, and he is the lighting. He is Bhava, he is Parjanya, he is Mahadeva, he is sinless. He is the Moon, he is Isana, he is Surya, he is Varuna. He is Kala, he is Antaka, he is Mrityu, he is Yama. 1 He is the day, and he is the night. He is the fortnight, he is the month, he is the seasons. He is the morning and evening-twilights, he is the year. He is Dhatri, he is Vidhatri, he is the Soul of the universe, and he is the doer of all acts in the universe. Though himself without body, it is he who is the embodied celestial. 

Mahābhāratam Drona Parva Section 202-203 (jaya section)

Is this obvious enough? Unlike Rama or Kṛṣṇa, Śiva is not a given name. So, who is this Shankara who is Umapathi, and who has his abode in Kailash?

Isha Wallpaper Adi Yogi with Saptarishis
  • One day a being walked in, whose name is not known AB3.34, KA2.100sqq as a Yogi (Adi Yogi : first yogi who is one with creation) as “He is Yoga and the Abode/Lord of Yoga”DP203
  • He is the one who brought forth the Seven Sages as the Seven GemsRV6.74.1.
  • Since He had no name and came from the North (Mūjavant), and dwelled in mountains, they called him Girisha.
  • As he was the foremost, they placed him on Dakshina and so called him Dakshina MurthiSU4.21.
  • Since he married the daughter of the mountain, as Kenopanishad says “Uma daughter of Himavat” they called him Umapathi TA10.22.40.22 .
  • All beings (bhootas) flocked around him, including pious, nefarious, and animals, especially snakes as they have unique chemistry with those in a meditative state, so they called him Paśūpati/Satpati/Bhootapati TS4.5.2, RV2.33.12, AV11.2.1 so as an overlord of all beings they called him Isha. Those who were brave and courageous took a step towards him and so He became the leaver of the brave RV10.92.9.
  • He was independent and sovereign they called Svatantra, Svadhanva and Svatava RV1.166.2 (Sva = sovereign). Since he was the supreme overload/authority they called him Isha. So together he was titled Isha + Sva = Ishvar. In him they saw Mahat = the great priciple, so they called him Maha + Isha + Svara = Mahesvara. In him they saw Vishvam, they called him Vishveswara. In him they saw everthing (Sarva) so they called him Sarveshwara. They saw hightest Divinity in him so they called him Mahadeva SB6.3.
  • They realized he was foremost so they called him Sriṣṭhaḥ.
  • They saw his janan:netra on his forehead so they called him Triambaka.
  • When he consumed he anti-creation element in his throat, they called him Nilakanta.
  • He wore no clothes nor decorations so they called Digambara.
  • He removed the darkness of Avidya so he was Andhashaspati SB5.3.2.
  • No one knows who he is, where he came from, they saw nothing but auspiciousness so they called Shiva.
  • He removed their sufferings and gave them salvation so they called him Samkara.
  • It’s childish to think a paper and a pen and a few words can describe what He is 🙂

नमः शङ्क॒राय TS4.5.8 Samkara = Sam Karoti iti Samkara

If we take Śrī Kṛṣṇa’s example in Gita, He is called with different names by Arjuna. Based on the situation and intimacy Arjuna called him Gudhakesha, Vasudeva, Yadava, Sakha, Hrishikesha, Janardana and many more, similarly various Rishi/Rśis like Vyāsa and Parashurama, Acharyas like Drona, and Krishna himself addressed this Nameless-Being-of-Bliss as Śiva (oh auspicious one), Shankara (the forgiver/remover of our troubles), Mahadeva (oh great one), Maheshwara (oh self supreme principle), Rudra (oh fierce one), Ishana/Ishava VS16.9 (the principle authority), and many more.

Many Upaniṣhads were later composed by Sages and Acharyas which are nothing but a summary of Vedas about Rudra. These later Upaniṣhads are considered Minor/Secondary because the primary Upaniṣhads do contain the cumulative essence of later Upaniṣhads. Hence Adi Śankaracharya was the first to collected Upaniṣhads belonging to various Vedic Śākhās along with Sutras to postulate the Advita theses. He foresaw the extinction of various Vedic Śākhās and hence preserved their Upaniṣhads. He on many occasions referred to minor Upaniṣhads like Jalabha Upaniṣhad in his Brahma Sutra Bhashya and more. It’s only after 1000 to 800 years later that other Acharyas influenced by the Puráńic literature relied on certain Upaniṣhads during the Bhakti era. So Śiva is the concept whereas Śankara is the personification of that concept. Śankara himself said to Maharśi Vaśiṣṭha:

Sankara said: Do you know who Divine is? Devine is not Viṣṇu, Sankara, or Brahmā; not the wind (Vāyu), the Sun or the Moon (Chandra/Soma); not the Brāhmans or the King; not I nor you; not Lakṣmī nor the mind (intellect). Divine is without form and undivided (not in the objects); that splendour (devanam) which is not made and which has neither beginning nor end is known as Deva or Śiva (the concept of eternal infinite auspiciousness) which is pure consciousness. That alone is to be worshipped; and that alone is all. If one is unable to worship this Śiva then he is encouraged to worship the form. The later yields finite results but the former bestows infinite bliss. He who ignores the infinite and is devoted to the finite abandons a pleasure-garden and seeks the thorny bush. However, sages sometimes worship a form playfully.

Rudra is the pure, spontaneous self-experience which is the one consciousness that dwells in all substances. It is the seed of all seeds, it is the essence of this world-appearance, it is the greatest of actions. It is the cause of all causes and it is the essence in all beings, though in fact it does not cause anything nor is it the concept of being, and therefore cannot be conceived. It is the awareness in all that is sentient, it knows itself as its own object, it is its own supreme object and it is aware of infinite diversity within itself.

Vaśiṣṭha Ramayanam / Yoga Vaśiṣṭham 6.1.29-30

At this time we should have experienced a glimpse into Śiva/Rudra as a divine concept that is beyond any object or form or a personified divinity. But let’s explore the evolution of Rudra and various concepts associated with Rudra.

The Pinnacle of Rudra: Śrī Rudram ~ Rudra Prashna ~ Śatarudriya

Vedam is one, meaning it is one knowledge of one truth, because it originates from the root word ‘Vid’ which means to know. This Veda is called Apauruṣeyā, meaning that which is not composed or authored. Vedas are compilations of homages given by many Ṛṣis in their transcendental states of meditation (Dhyana/Samadhi). Veda has 4 primary divisions called the Principle Śākhā/Zākhā, they are: Rig/Rk, Yajur, Sāma, and Atharva. Since Yajur has two shades, Kṛṣṇa Yajur and Sukla Yajur, some scholars consider a total of 5 Principle Zākhās/Śākhā/Branches. Please note that within these 4 primary Śākhās, many sub Śākhās emerged and each became an independent school hence are also called as Śākhās. For example, Kṛṣṇa Yajur has Taittirīya, Kapishthala, and Caraka-Katha Śākhās. Similarly Rig/Rk has Śākala and Bāṣkala Śākhā. At the center of these 5 Principle Sākhā stands the KṛṣṇaYajur (Black Yajur). But what places Kṛṣṇa Yajur after Sukla Yajur? That we will see soon. In Kṛṣṇa Yajur there are 7 kandas (cantos), making the 4th kanda its center. This 4th kanda has 9 Prapathaka/Prayāya (chapters/Prashnas), making the 5th chapter its center. This 5th chapter with 11 homages is called the Rudra Prashna or Śrī Rudram. This makes Rudra Prashna the kernel/core of Vedam and is the home of the Panchakshari (five syllables) Mahamantra which is Om Nama Śivāya. Many renowned scholars like Śrī Chaganti call Rudra Prashna the heart and well-guarded nucleus of Vedam. Śatarudrīya/Çatarudriya, on the other hand, comes from the Rudrādhyāyas Sukla Yajur Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā Saṃhitā (White Yajur) belonging to 16th Kanda (Also present in Maitrāyaṇī Saṃhitā of Kṛṣṇa Yajur). It contains 6×11 = 66 homages with 425 oblations given to One Hundred aspects of Rudra – hence the word Śata/Çata, meaning hundred. This 425 is divided into three sets – 360 formulas represent 30 phases of the moon multiplied by 12 months/masa in a year, 30 formulas correspond to the nights of each month, and 35 formulas representing the 13th month called Adhika Masa are dedicated to the SELF (the divine spark Agni and Prajāpati). Why 35? The Self on the physical level is represented with 30 limbs + 2 feet + 2 vital prāṇa + 1 head/mind totaling 35. Coming back to the question, what proves Kṛṣṇa Yajur as the successor to Sukla Yajur? Because Śatarudrīya is mentioned in Kṛṣṇa Yajur 5.4, making it the successor Zākhā. Apart from the Vedas, Śatarudrīya is extensively described in the Mahābhārata Itihāsa across many parvas (chapters). Śatarudrīya is the summit to all that is Rudra, it provides in full detail the concepts of Omnipotence, Sovereignty (īśvaratva), Omniscience (Mahakaal), and Omnipresence (the indweller in all), and is the pinnacle of microcosm-macrocosm analogy.

Please note that among various Śākhā explained by Caraṇavyūha, puts Rudra Prashna or Śrī Rudram in the Saṃhitās of both Taittirīya Śākhā and Kapisthala Śākhā of Kṛṣṇa Yajur.

Fundamental Vocabulary: Śata/Çata = hundred, Sahasra = thousand/countless, Homa/Agnihotram/Śaṇḍila = fire altar, Cātvāla = hole in the center of the fire, Svāhākāra = presenting of oblations into the fire altar, Anuvākam = verse used in making oblation, Māsa = month, Samvatsaram = year, Ṛtu = seasons, Kalasha = Vessel, Yajamāna = the host of the ceremony, Adhvaryu = the one making oblations, Namaha = to prostrate oneself as the sacrifice. Yājuṣmatī/Pariśrit = ceremonial stones around the fire altar, Lokampṛṇa = bricks used in building the fire-altar, Mantra = Anuvākam chanted based on its metre to invoke certain resonance/vibration/Deva, Sāmans = soothing and appeasing hymns, Yajñá = the entire ceremonial process of mantras as Svāhākāra given into the fire-altar, Vedi = the location of the Yajñá, āgnidhra = the brahmin/priests supporting the process of the Yajñá, Nirṛti = Southwest direction of the Yajñá. āhavaniya = eastern fire, gārhapatya = western fire, dakṣiṇāgni = southern fire.

From Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā let us move on to its Brahmāṇa portion located in the 11th Kanda, 3rd Prayāya, Brahman 1-2 of the Sukla Yajur Veda, which explains the instructions of Śatarudrīya Yajñá in utmost detail. All the hymns in the Saṃhitās section of Śatarudrīya are utilized here with detailed explanation, hence these chapters of Veda-Saṃhitās addressing Rudra are called Rudrādhyāya and hymns addressing Rudra are called Rudrīya. The instruction and details of presenting these 425 oblations to hundreds of forms of Rudra are given in its Brahmāṇa portion, wherein the completed fire-altar becomes Rudra. The Devas confer that he is the “ṛtāvṛdha: the supreme form of truth and immortality”. Here immortality is not of the body but the realization of ṛta (the supreme truth).

1. Why is Śatarudrīya needed? Prajāpati is the subtle body of consciousness and upon austerity/Yajñá all Devas arise from his exhaustion. Devas are the phenomenon of ṛta. The final aspect that remains in Prajāpati is furious essence, this anger is called Manyu. It is also explained in the Kṛṣṇa Yajur Veda that the final stage of the fire-altar becomes Rudra, also the remnant of Yajñá becomes whole and so restarts the Yajñá itself. Prajāpati’s tears of anguish and exhaustion which is called Tapodhuma cover the wrath of Manyu. This Manyu is the hundred-headed Rudra with a thousand eyes and thousands of weapons. The remaining three Vedas speak of this multifaceted form of Rudra as Viṣvarūpam, meaning the cosmic form or the all-encompassing omni-form RV 2.33.10/TS 4.5.4/TA 10.23.1. These tears of anguish cover all bhuvanas (lokas) in countless numbers, and they are all called Rudras. Since this form originated from anguish/cry (ruditāt), He is called Rudra. So, the word Rudra has many meanings based on the process involved, this is why Rudra is the Divinity of many contradictions and so becomes a natural epithet to all Vedic Divinities. This incomprehensible fierce form frightened all the Devas, so they asked Prajāpati to pacify him. They gathered calming oblations/offerings called Śāntadevatyam; this calming oblation to Rudra is called Śāntarudriya. These offerings include Sesamum seeds, Gavedhuka and Arka offered over ceremonial stones around the fire-altar called Pariśrit. Since it is to appease the hundred-headed Rudra, it is called Śataśirsarudra-śamaniyam (Śata = hundred, śirsa = heads)

2. How can one offer oblations to the Lord who encompasses all? What can one offer to Him that is not His? These Svāhākāra (oblations) in the form of Gaveduka were offered in the Northern region of the Agnihotram (fire-altar) because this is the region of Rudra (hence the title dakṣiṇin marutāṃRV5.60, and so a Gaveduka plant grew at that palace, and Prajāpati said: “we satisficed him with his own share with his own essence”. Similarly, leaves of Arka were offered and an Arka plant grew at that place and again Prajāpati said “we satisfice him with his own share with his own essence”. 

 3. Svāhākāras offered from the height of the knees are received by Rudras encompassing Earth and below realms; similarly, oblations given from the navel region are received by all Rudras of the aerial region called antariksha; then oblations given from the mouth region are received by those from the upper celestial regions. Finally, oblation are surrendered to the hundred-headed manifestation of Rudra; this form is titled Kṣatra, meaning the chief/head/owner. From the tears of Kṣatra came Viś, and Viś became Creation itself and its beings, they became people or commoners. These Viś gave the first oblations/anuvākam of Śataśirsarudra to Ekadevataya (the One Divinity), who is Kṣatra. This very concept gave way to Eka-Vrātya or Eko-He-Rudra, meaning “there is none that is not Rudra”. And Viś became the root word for Viśvam, and if we go to Kṛṣṇa Yajur Veda Taittirīya Saṃhitā 4.5.5 says “नमो गिरिशाय च शिपिविष्टाय च” meaning salutations to the one who resides on the mountains and who becomes Viśvam (ŚipiViṣṭa). Please note that ŚipiViṣṭa is a title given to Viśnu as well, as Viśnu is the personification of Viśvam. Hence Prajāpati says “we satisficed him with his own share with his own essence” and this conclusion corresponds with Kṛṣṇa Yajur Veda Taittirīya Saṃhitā1.8.6 which in return landed in both Svetasvatara Upaniṣhad and Chandogya Upaniṣhad (two among the 18 primary Upaniṣhad).

There is (हि) The One (एको ) Rudrā (रुद्रो) and none (न) other than He, none can make Him second (द्विती) in being (याय), that is in existence (तस्थु:र्य) among worlds( इमां:ल्लोका), He is the authority (ईशते) by His own authority (ईशनीभिः)| In all worlds/celestial dimensions (भुवनानि), is His projection and under His guardians (संसृज् + ज्य + गोपाः) in entirety (विश्वा), He is established (तिष्ठति) in all beings (हे जनाः) as the indweller (प्रत्यङ्); and all beings (भूत्वा), at the time of final dissolution (अन्त:काले), become/withdraw into Him (सञ्चुकोच)

Svetasvatara Upaniṣhad 3.2

सदेव सोम्येदमग्र आसीदेकमेवाद्वितीयम् । तद्धैक आहुरसदेवेदमग्र आसीदेकमेवाद्वितीयं तस्मादसतः सज्जायत ॥6.2.1
कुतस्तु खलु सोम्यैवंस्यादिति होवाच कथमसतः सज्जायेतेति। सत्त्वेव सोम्येदमग्र आसीदेकमेवाद्वितीयम् ॥ 6.2.2
यथा सोम्य मधु मधुकृतो निस्तिष्ठन्ति नानात्ययानां वृक्षाणांरसान्समवहारमेकतांरसं गमयन्ति ॥ 6.9.1
ते यथा तत्र न विवेकं लभन्तेऽमुष्याहं वृक्षस्य रसोऽस्म्यमुष्याहं वृक्षस्य रसोऽस्मीत्येवमेव खलु सोम्येमाः सर्वाः प्रजाः सति सम्पद्य न विदुः सति सम्पद्यामह इति ॥
“from a single ball of clay, we can know every form made of clay, the difference in form is but the name (nama-rūpa). In the beginning was one being, without a second, or non-being, without a second; and from that various beings came to be. Just like bees make one honey from nectars of various flowers, yet the honey do not know from which tree or flower, in the same way, all beings begotten from One Being do not know their source”
Please note: the word “Being” doesn’t mean a person nor an alien or animal, beings means “to be” or “to exist”. Existence can’t be described or iconified with in image/form within the frontier of vocabulary.

Chandogya Upaniṣhad 6.2.1/6.2.2/6.9.1/6.9.2

4. So who is this Prajāpati, from whom came forth the all-encompassing Rudra? There are 13 māsa/months in a year/samvatsaram and the dawn is Prajāpati. In other words, there are 14 Yajus (mantras), one for each month and the 14th mantra is Prajāpati, the very Agnihotram or fire-altar is also Prajāpati. Great is Agni, the transmitter of oblations that were given to him by saying “Namo Namaha“, wherein Namaha is the sacrifice of self. This Brahmāṇa is a perfect match with Kanda 8, Prayāya 1, Brahmāṇa 3, which also describes the birth of Rudrā and Gāyatrī.

5. Being the lord of all quarters, Rudra has the title “dishām ca pataye” and “Pathīnāṃ-Pataye” TS4.5.2,VS16.17, and the famous title digambara. He is the one with golden arms “HiraṇyabahaveyVS16.17, the commander (Kṣatra), the principle (Mahā), and the authority (īśha). The lord of all creators (BhutapatiAV11.2.1/Paśūpati/Satpati) receives this sacrifice as Kṣatra, since Kṣatra is the foremost head. So, He (Kṣatra) takes all oblation on behalf of countless Rudras. When the multitude-form of Rudra receives this sacrifice, countless Rudras enter all dimensions of reality, various beings with a multitude of aspects are pleased as they are born.

Please note: Digambara means Digeva:ambaram:asya, meaning the one who is clad/clothed with space and all directions. Even Durga, after the dissolution of Creation, is called Digambar – meaning, not wearing Creation and space (that holds Creation).

6. In this way each Anuvākam is given to one of many aspects of Rudras; for example, the eightieth Anuvākam is given to Avatāna, meaning the unstringing of the bow, and to the arrows. The Rudras of celestial regions hold arrows of rain, those of the aerial region hold arrows of wind, and those of Earthly realms hold arrows of food and medicine. Another celebrated Anuvākam is “Namo vah Kirikebhyah“, meaning the brilliant and sparkling abode like the Sun. Another is in recognition of Agni, Vāyu, and all Ādityas, who are the heart of all Devatas/Divinities. Another to Drāpa is “the remover/dispeller”, so he is titled “Andhasah”, which is Soma; and Rudra becomes Andhasaspati, meaning the Lord of Soma. In this way, various Anuvākam with their respective metres/syllables make up the mantra, using which various manifestations of Rudras are appeased in Yajñá. For example, Virād metre is of 10 syllables used to give oblation in 10 directions to 10 prāṇas which provide full life called āyus; This is why Brhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣhad 3.9.4 says that 10 Rudra enter a Purusha/being as their 10 prāṇas and 11th is the Atman. Similarly, different metres are used in coordination with months, seasons, worlds, prāṇa, yojanas (distance in leagues), wind, rain, food, medicines, various parts of the human body, trees, herbs, and more.

Bird/Eagle shaped Yajñá Vedi Kunda

7. As we head into Brahmāṇa 2, the fire-altar is built in the shape of a flying bird, and Prajāpati releases water and ceremonial stones in the Nirṛti quarter as a sign of releasing all his offenses, fear, pain and suffering. There are many other detailed events like breaking the pot, naming one’s enemies, naming the objects of desire and more. Various offerings are performed in their respective directions using items like milk, ghee, honey, lotus flowers, bamboo grass, and more. The bricks that build this altar are given oblations and called upon as they are the building blocks of Creation, they are the seasons, they are night and day, they are the names and titles of the Devatas being invited to the ceremony. Certain bricks are turned away and are not named, these bricks are called Lokampṛṇa, hence they are titled Virāj; this became the source/egg for a secondary Creation mentioned in other Vedas. Lokampṛṇa literally means that which fills all worlds. Similar to Hiranyagarbha and Skambha, Virāj is another concept discussed in the Vedas in respect to Puruṣa.

8. Near the end of the Yajñá, Prajāpati sings Sāmans like Gāyatra using the Gāyatri metre. He does so while circling around the altar three times (pradakṣiṇa) with the altar being on his right, indicating its highest stature. Various Sāmans are sung from each quarter of the fire altar on behalf of Creation, like Rathantara for Earth, Bṛhad for Sky, Vāmadevya for prāṇa, Yajñāyajñīya for Moon, and so on. Finally, Prajāpati sings the Sāmans representing one’s own heart – which is nothing but the Sun – and asks for prajās (meaning progeny). So, prajā are people or beings and Prajā+pati is their creator. The entire fire-altar becomes the source of Creation and all beings emerge out of it. Many entities arise from the oblations given to Rudra, like animals, amphibious creatures like frogs, plants like Vetasa (bamboo grass), flowers like Avākkās (lotus). By doing so, all prāṇas get revitalized and so regain āyus, meaning full life and heal from the exhaustion. Upon meditation, the highest form of immortality is bestowed. This immortality is beyond prāṇas and beyond physicality. Thus concludes the Śatarudrīya Yajñá where Prajāpati says “this immortality the highest in this whole Creation”. This highest immortality is ṛtāvṛdha: the supreme form of truth.

If this entire process is witnessed through Prajāpati, then Prajāpati is both the Yajamāna (the one performing the Yajñá) and the fire-altar itself. The entire fire-altar is Creation and all the worlds, and the water sprinkled into it as oblations are the oceans. He is the 14th Yajus mantra and so He is the dawn of a Sāṃvatsaram; finally, He is the subtle body of beings, making him the Self.

If witnessed through Agni, then Agni is the Great Source, Agni is Vāk and the one to recite the Vedic Mantra (anuvakam) RV1.1.1, Agni is Rudra, Agni is the fire on the Earth and also the fire in the Sun KA-III-222 Agni is Yajñá and the āgnidhra/hotr (the brahmin priest) and the transmitter of oblations, he transmutes Creation and is also the destroyer. He is both the beginning and the end. He is the Self, he is prāṇa and the energy of the physical body.

If witnessed as Yajñá, it is not just a physical act or a ritual. All of Creation is Yajñá; the process that propels Creation is Yajñá. This process is both on the micro-level and the macro level. The Yajñá-Vedi is the Earth and the planets, all Devatas emerge from Yajñá, a human body is Yajñá, the very life process is Yajñá. Yajñá is the source and the destination. The words of Sri Aurobindo, concerning the Yajñá of Rudra Prashna, match the essence of this Yajñá and the statements of Prajāpati:

“This is a special type of Yoga called here as the Vedic Yoga, whose essence is the inner Yajñá. Taittirīya Saṃhitā mentions in many places that this Yajñá is a journey. A common synonym of Yajñá is adhvara which means journey (adhva=path, ra=movement). The aim of Vedic Yoga is to establish an all-sided perfection in both the individual and society. The focus here is on the development of the inner potential, i.e., that connected with inner physical body, with the prāṇa energy, those connected with our mental and supramental energies. This upward journey involves seven steps or stages, each Prapathaka is one step of this journey. Who journeys? It’s the jiva/soul of the seeker with all the associated prāṇa energies and the subtle bodies which travels to the world of light (svar). In the Veda the standard symbol of jiva/soul is a bird (shyena, hawk) that goes to heaven/svar-ga (celestial realms of light or enlightened state of consciousness), perfects all its energies and organs and returns to Earth in its divinized condition. The anuvakam 4.1.1 quotes Rig Veda 10.13.1 to stress that each one of us is a child of immortality. Attaining that divine perfection is our birthright”

Yajur Veda: Sir Aurobindo Kapali Shastra Institute of Vedic Culture.(n.d)

When witnessed as Rudra, then Rudra is not a name or a person anymore. Rudra is the raw concept that manifests in all, the energy that propels Creation forward to the highest stride of Viś:nu. Rudras encompass all planes of reality. There is nothing that is not Rudra, He is the cause and the consequence. Rudra becomes Manyu, Vrātya, Kṣatra, Drāpa, Andhasaspati, Kāla and Viś. Viś becomes the root word for Viśvam (entirety) and Viśvam is Viśnu. Rudra expands into all quarters/directions and so becomes the owner of all quarters, hence the title “dishām ca patayeTS4.5.2,VS16.17 . Rudra enters everything, into Soma, into Agni, into Vayu, into plants, water, metal. Rudra is prāṇa, He is the body and self, He is the owner and servant, He is the Chief and the subject, He is the ruler and the commoner, the giver and the taker, He heals and destroys, He protects and terrorizes, He creates and destroys. His name is the highest of all names. Everything is Rudra, there are no two entities. Hence, as Prajāpati says, “we satisficed him with his own share with his own essence”.

As Kṣatra He is the head of all beings, as Paśūpati He is the abode of all creators, as medha-pati He is the lord/abode of all sacrifice, as brahmānaspatim He is the lord/abode of all knowledge, as gātha-patim He is the abode of all hymns and songs. This matches the first homage given for Rudra-Soma in the Rig Veda,

He is tavyase (mighty/strong), yet He has Shamtamam Hruday (pleasant or beneficent heart)
gātha-patim = resort of all hymns/songs
medha-patim = the resort of Yajñá/sacrifice/oblations
śam-yoḥ sumnam = bliss/ānandam
pra-jāḥ amṛtasya = immortals family possessing the elixir (amṛta)
parasmin dhāman ṛtasya = home to the highest truth (ṛtasya)
Please Note: Both terms “ṛtasya” and “amṛtasya” are synonymously used; at times, Soma is also used as its replacement.

Rig Veda 1.43

 Thou, O Agni, art Rudra, the asura of the mighty sky
Rudra, lord of the sacrifice

Kṛṣṇa Yajur Veda Taittirīya Saṃhitā 1.3.14, 1.4.11

Finally, let us come to Kṛṣṇa Dvaipāyana Itihāsa or Mahābhāratam. Drona Parva, Nārāyaṇastra-Mokshana Parva, Section 203 summarizes every aspect we have seen in the Vedas. It says:

Veda Vyāsa says: The foremost one of all Devas/Gods, that destroyer of Daksha’s Yajñá, that divine lord having a bull as His sign, became gratified with the Devas. He is Rudra, He is Śiva, He is Agni, He is everything, and He hath knowledge of everything. He is Indra, He is the wind/Vayu, He is the twin Ashvins, He is the lightning. He is Bhava, He is Parjanya, He is Mahādeva, He is sinless (untouched by karma-cause-and-effect). He is the Moon/Soma, He is īśhana, He is Surya, He is Varuna. He is Kāla, He is Antaka, He is Mrityu, He is Yama. He is the day, He is the night. He is the fortnight, He is the month, He is the season. He is morning and night and twilight, He is the year/Sāṃvatsara. He is Dhātri, He is Vidhātri, He is the soul of the Viśvam. Though Himself without body, He it is who is the embodied celestials. He is one, He is many, He is hundred thousand. Brahmanas versed in Vedas say that He hath two forms. These are the terrible and auspicious. These two forms are again multifarious. His terrible forms are Agni, Viśnu and Surya. His auspicious forms are the water, light and the Moon. Whatever is highly mysterious in the several branches of Vedas, in the Upaniṣhads, in the Puráńas, and in those sciences/Śāstra that deal with the soul/jiva-ātmān, is that God, viz., Maheswara. That God is again without birth. All the attributes of that God could not be enumerated by me, Oh son of Pandu, even if I were to recite them continuously for a thousand years. He is Maheswara and is the lord of even the supreme ones. In many forms of many kinds He prevadeth the Viśvam. He always dwells in the crematoriums. Men worship that Supreme Lord in that place where none but the courageous can go. Many are the names, of truthful import, of this deity in all worlds; those names are founded upon His Supremacy, His omnipotence and His acts. In the Veda, the excellent hymn called Śatarudrīya hath been sung in honor of that great God called the infinite Rudra.

Krishna showed thee this God, in thy dream, sitting on the top of the foremost of mountains. That illustrious God proceedeth in advance of thee in battle. It is He who gave thee those weapons with which thou didst slay the Danavas. The hymn approved of by the Vedas and called Śatarudrīya in honor of that God of Gods, that excellent, famous, life-enhancing and sacred hymn, has now, O Partha been explained to thee. This hymn of 4 divisions capable of accomplishing every object, is sacred, destructive of all sins, and competent to drive away all stains and kill all sorrows and all fears. The man that always listens to it succeeds in vanquishing all his foes and is highly respected in the region of Rudra. The person who always attentively reads or listens to the recitation of this excellent and this auspicious account appertaining to battle, of the illustrious deity, and who worships with devotion that illustrious lord of universe obtains all the high objects of desire in consequence of the three-eyed God being gratified by with him.

Mahābhāratam, Drona Parva – Narayanastra-mokshana Parva Section 203

sudeva says to Yudhishthira: I shall recite to you the good that I have acquired and the fame that I have won through the grace of the high-souled one. Verily, I shall discourse to you on this topic, after I have bowed unto Kaparddin. O King, listen to me as I recite to you that Śatarudrīya which I repeat, with restrained senses, every morning after rising from bed. The great lord of all creatures, viz., the Grandsire Brahman himself, endued with wealth of penances, composed those mantras, after having observed special penances for some time. O sire, it is Śankcara who created all the creatures in the universe, mobile and immobile. There is no being that is higher, O monarch, than Mahādeva.

Mahābhāratam Anuśāsanica Parva Section 160 (non-jaya section)

Thou art the beginning and thou art the end of the Vedas, thou art the Gāyatri and thou art OM. Thou art green, red, blue ….. and all colors of the Sun, Thou art without color, thou art best color, thou art the maker of colors, and thou art without comparison….. Thou art the fire upon which the sacrificial butter/ghee is poured. Thou art he who pours the ghee. Thou art he in honor of whom the ghee is poured, thou art the butter itself that is poured. Thou art those section of Brahmanas that are called Trisuparna, thou art all the Vedas, thou art the section called Śatarudrīya in the Yajushes/Yajur. Thou art holiest of holies, auspicious of auspicious things. Thou animatest the inanimate body. Thou art the Chit that dwell in the human form. Invested with attributes, thou becomes subject to destruction, thou art Jiva, that is He who is never subjected to destruction when uninvested with attributes. Thou art full yet thou become liable to decay and death in the form of the body which is Jiva’s accompaniment. Thou art art satwa, rajas, tamas and thou art not subject to error. Thou art the breath of life called Prāna, Apāna, Samāna, Udāna and Vyāna. Thou art the opening of eye and shutting of eye…..
त्रिसुपर्ण (Trisuparna) = Secret text or that which is to be known

Mahābhāratam Shanti Parva – Moksha Dharma Parva Section 285

Rudraṣṭakam, a magnificent composition by Ṛṣi Lomash, enclosed within Rama Charita Maānas by devout poet Tulsidas addresses Him as “Veda Swarūpa”:

Namaam-Iisham-Iishaana Nirvaanna-Ruupam
Vibhum Vyaapakam Brahma-Veda-Svaruupam |
Nijam Nirgunnam Nirvikalpam Niriiham
Cidaakaasham-Aakaasha-Vaasam Bhaje-[A]ham ||1||

Rudraṣṭakam

Uma ~ Devi Pārvatī ~ Sati

So, where is Uma or Devi Pārvatī described in the Veda?

त इदुग्राः शवसा धर्ष्णुषेणा उभे युजन्त रोदसी सुमेके |अध समैषु रोदसी सवशोचिरामवत्सु तस्थौ न रोकः ||

We praise (इदु) the mighty/strong (शवसा) who stood to break (उभे) the impertinence/disrespect (धार्ष्ट्), stood for the moment (चिरा – मवत्सु) with their mighty weapons surrounding (समैषु) the Divine Supreme (सवशो) Rodasī (रोदसी) of Earth and Heaven; under (अध ) Her command they stood steady (चिरा – मवत्सु) in Her assistance (तस्थौ), as She stood shining with the splendor (रोकः) of Her innate brilliance.

Rig Veda 6.66

She is addressed as Rodasī RV 5&6 the mother of Maruts. The definition of Rodasī is the Divine Mother of all (both of Heavens and Earth). Rodasī means Rud:ā:suni (consort of Rudra, or the duality of Rudra) but Rodasī is not specifically described as a personification on the material level nor is She paired with Rudra like Soma. As we have seen the pairing of Soma and Rudra are prominent across many Vedic Śākhās, but Grihya-sutra of Paraskara Sukla Yajur Veda makes a bold description by saying “She the Mother of Rudras (Maruts) is the daughter of Vasus and the sister of Adityas and is the center/navel of all immortality”. And we know with certainty that Soma is the center of all immortality and amṛta. In the Puráńas, She is addressed with the same title as Śiva, because She is never different or separate from Śiva; hence it is said “without Śakti, Śiva is shava”, meaning Śiva becomes inert or un-manifest like the dark space without Śakti. When it is Śiva its masculine, together they are Śivā; to Rudra, She is Rudrāni/RodasīGS3.8 together they are Rudrā; to Bhava She is Bhavani GS3.8; to Sharva She is SharvaniGS3.8; to Vīra:Bhadra She is Bhadrakali. In all of His 8 forms described in the Yajur Veda, She is his equal companion. Even during the dissolution of Creation, She is the only witness; hence the title MahāPralaya Sakshini. Coming back to Rodasī, She is described as the gift bearer of the mountains, who is always accompanied/surrounded by the mighty Maruts, like the Ganas who always surround the Divine Mother Pārvatī (Pārvata Raja Putri) RV 5.56 6.66. The hymn describes how magnificently She stood in brilliance surrounded by the mighty Maruts RV 6.66, which reminds us of how She (Sati) stood in front of Daksha Yajñá surrounded by mighty Ganas and how they were led by fierce Vīrabhadra to decimate Daksha’s Nir:īśvara:Yajñá (a Yajñá without īśvara). One has to raise the question, how can the Rudra who is the resort of Yajñá/sacrifice (medha-patimRV1.43 TS1.3.14) be excluded from Yajñá? This is what Prajāpati Daksha tried to do and suffered the wrath of Pāraśakti (Sati), which led to his beheading and, later, mutation with a goat head as an example for times to come. Now, is this reference only of the Mahābhārata Itihāsam 12.274 and Siva Maha Puráńas or does it have any reference to the Vedas? The account can be found both in Kṛṣṇa Yajur Veda Taittirīya Saṃhitā 2.6.8/5.4.3 as well as Aitareya Brahmāṇa (3.34) of the Rig Veda.

Agni is Rudra; He is born then when the Agni:Homa is completely piled up with sacrifice; just as a calf desires its mothers teat on birth, so He (Rudra) seeks His portion; if he were not to offer a libation to Him, He would consume the Adhvaryu and the sacrificer. He offers the Çatarudriya (oblation); verily he appeases Him with his own portion; neither Adhvaryu nor sacrificer goes to ruin. TS 5.4.3
 “When one should not pile the Agni:Homa with sacrifice”. The fire is Rudra, and it is as if one stirs up a sleeping lion. TS 5.4.10

Kṛṣṇa Yajur Veda Taittirīya Saṃhitā 2.6.8/5.4.3,10

A German researcher, Michael Witzel states in his research of the long lost Caraka-Katha Āraṇyaka manuscripts:

When the gods (devas) had succeeded in going to heaven (heavenly realms) they could not recognize him, as he eventually approached them (devas), Sun-colored and boasting of his power. This version is unique and has gone so far unnoticed. It is one of the earliest stories that explain some of Rudra’s many names (Bhava, Sharva, Siva, Mrda). The way the gods (the Yajamana) obtain heaven was by performing a ritual, the Pravargya. From this they excluded Rudra, told in another slightly version (II 115, III 207). This merely relates the threat by Rudra, with bow and arrow in hand and the compliance of the gods by including him into the Pravargya ritual.

Caraka-Katha Aranyaka, Harvard Oriental Series 65, Michael Witzel

Now, let’s check the 2nd section of the Manuscript of Caraka-Katha Āraṇyaka II-100/101 and do keep notice of 5 names with which Rudra is addressed and how they mimic the five faces of Shiva linga, also this exact hymn landed in Atharvaśiras Upaniṣhad (one of the minor Upaniṣhad belonging to Atharva Veda).

evāitad āha. divi prsto yajatas suryatvag iti || devā vai rudram svargaṃ lokaṃ gataṃ na vyajānann ādityavarṇaṃ carantan. te .abruvan: ko .asīti (question). ahaṃ rudro, aham indro, aham ādityo, ahaṃ sarvasyāvayā haraso divyasyeti. te bruvan: nirbhajāmainam iti. tān ruvann abhyavadat. tān prādhrajat. te bruvan: bhavān sarvam iti. yad ruvann abhyavadat, tad rudrasya rudratvam. yad bhavān iti, tad bhavasya bhavatvam. yat sarvam iti tac charvasya śarvatvam. sa śivo bhavat. tac chivasya śivatvam. tebhyo mṛlata tan mṛlasya mṛlatvam. taṃ devā abruvan bhavasya bhūtasya bhavyasyādhipatyam iti. sarvasyādhipatyaṃ yajamānaṃ gamayati. anavadyabhis sam u jagmabhir iti. hotra va anavadyas. tabhir va esapravargye sangaschate. tabhir eva pravargyam sangamayati. sanudra asam sadanam va ahur iti. veda vai samudras. tesu va e-

Wandering Rudra in the heavenly realm (svargaṃ lokaṃ) with a sun-like luster/brilliance (ādityavarṇaṃ). The Devas who ascended to the heavenly realm saw and sought Rudra as to who he was (.abruvan: ko .asīti). I am Rudra (ahaṃ rudro), I am Indra (aham indro), I am the Āditya (aham indro, aham ādityo), I am divine brilliance the encompases entirity ( ahaṃ sarvasyāvayā haraso divyasyeti). The Devas claimed no offering to Rudra. He Roared fiercely towards them (rudratvam). The devas realized this and addressed him with due reverence by calling him Bhava. They said Bhava the entirety is thy Sarva. Because they said you are all this that revealed Śarva’s [prowess] as an archer. Because he then became favorable that is Śiva’s benevolence. Because he became kind to them [the other deva-s] that is Mṛḍa’s compassion. The deva-s said to him: “The overlordship of the present, the past and the future [is yours]. [If he knows this while performing the ritual, i.e. offering the portion for Rudra] it leads the ritualist to lordship over all.

Caraka Katha Āraṇyaka 2.100/101

After Sati left Her manifestation, it was not Śiva who was furious. Rarely do we see Śiva being furious; it is always His Rudras. So when Maruts (ganas) came to Him to share the story of Sati, Śiva created Veerabhadra and Bhadrakali. By the time of the Rig Veda, Rudras have been receiving homage but there is an issue – chapter by chapter, in the Rig Veda RV7.46, they keep describing Rudras as independent (self-ruling and self-supreme), unparalleled in power, and these hymns seem to indicate that they are not aligned with the Vedic Pantheon order. They were referred to as solo/independent clans with no real relationship with the Devas (Indra or Solar deities like Viṣṇu or Surya). In many cases, Viṣṇu and Indra took their assistance in various battles. There are many hymns in Rig Veda Mandala 5, where Indra is urged by Maharśi not to be averse towards Rudras, and Indra never overrides the boons bestowed by Rudras. Also, Rudras are the lords of amṛta (Soma), the elixir of immortality (similar to sanjeevani given by Śiva to Maharśi Guru Śukracharya as mentioned in Mahābhārata Itihāsa). This was an issue for the Devatas ruled by Devendra and for others. Rudras were immortal of their own accord even before the kṣīrasāgara maṃthana, but the word “amṛta” was used in the early Rig Vedic period in hymns for Rudras. However, it is very difficult to date events like kṣīrasāgara maṃthana in Vedic chronology, so let us not take that too literally. Ironically, when Halahala (kālákuta = anti-creation element) emerged during the manthan, all the Devas sought Śiva, who then drank it to save them. Coming back, there was some divide between the Devas and the Rudras (two separate groups). This would have caused an issue with Prajāpati Daksha when his daughter wed Rudra. So, he disowned Her and insulted Her, then came Rudra and decimated his Yajñá. That means, since the Rig Veda, homages were paid to Rudras, but after Sati went to Rudra, Daksha’s hate drove him to a new Yajñá called Nir:īśvara:Yajñá (Yajñá without īśvara). It was not just him, many other Rishis (Ṛṣi) and Vedic deities sided with Daksha and encouraged him to disregard Rudras due to their independence. One important note that many misunderstand – it was never Surya who was insulted by Rudras during the destruction of this Yajñá, it was Pūṣaṇ (one of the other solar deities). This explains why Tantric literature is so vast and has its own evolution from the Vedic Nigamas, but in due time they both merged. Also, we will look into the concepts of “Isha” and “īśvara” soon.

Liṅga

Pashupatinath Linga Katmandu

Manifestation begins with the union of cit:śakti and cit:ānanda. This union is called “Liṅga” or an ellipsoid (representing a perpetual motion in the shape of an egg), a term that was first associated with Rudra/Siva in Yajur Veda Taittirīya Āraṇyaka 10.16.1-2 with the homage “sivaya namaha, sivalingaya namaha”. From this, all manifestation/change goes into a loop of perpetual motion. Liṅga is an arūparūpi (a:rūpa:rūpi), meaning a contradiction having a form (rūpa), at the same time, not confined to any specific form (a:rūpa). Since this union of cit:śakti and cit:ānanda is the first act, a Liṅga denotes a sign or first signal/act, the first union āliṅgana – which is called sandhi/yoga. Further, Liṅga is the first duality, a duality of gender (pu:liṅga, stri:linga), the innate Brahman ātmaliṅga TA10.16.2, a phallus (male organ holding Tejas, or union of species) and origin. Some scholars also consider Liṅga as an iconification of the pineal gland due to its association with metaphysical potential. Please note, when we say phallus, we should not limit Liṅga to only being a human reproductive organ. That would be like saying that the Supreme Brahman, before the creation of realities, first thought of a human reproductive organ, how is that sensible? Sages noticed the pattern of this union in everything, from the cosmic union to the union of beings on Earth, and realized the phallus in the same sense, without the notion of embarrassment/shyness or apprehension. Gudimallam Linga is a perfect example that dates back to the 1st Century BCE. Many temples (consecrated spaces) were also built to exhibit this sacred union without censorship, reluctance, or insecurity. Everything in Creation – from the largest to the tiniest – is forever in a perpetual motion (Śakti) of manifestation (Viṣṇu) and dissolution/implosion back into the source (Rudra). From this ellipsoid emerges a pulse in the form of a roar, this roar is called Rudra – which is very similar to the concept of Sabda:Brahman of Yoga and the Upaniṣhads. Across the Vedas, Rudra always encompasses a dual and contradictory role. The word Rudra also means to weep, as Sāyaṇācārya, the magnificent commentator of the Vedas says, “the one who makes our enemies weep”, or the very affirmation of Him being auspicious (Śiva) RV10.92/KV4.5.10. Kṛṣṇa Yajur Veda Taittirīya Āraṇyaka 10.16.1-2 sings the following homage:

Urdhvāya Namaha| Urdhvaliṅgāya Namaha| hiranyana Namaha| hiranyaliṅgāya namaha| suvarnāya namaha| survarnaliṅgāya namaha| divyāya namaha| divyaliṅgāya namaha| bhavāya namaha| bhavaliṅgāya namaha| sarvāya namaha| sarvaliṅgāya namaha| sivāya namaha| sivaliṅgāya namaha| jvalāya namaha| jvalaliṅgāya namaha| atmāyanamaha atmaliṅgāya namaha| paramāya namaha| paramaliṅgāya namaha.
Etathsomasya suryasya sarvalingam sthāpāyati pānimantram pavitram||

Kṛṣṇa Yajur Veda Taittirīya Āraṇyaka 10.16.1-2

Mahābhāratam Drona Parva, Nārāyaṇastra-mokshana Parva, Section 203 says:

Vyasa says: Since he Great and Ancient and is the source of Life and its continuance, and since his Phallic emblem is everlasting he is for that reason called Sthānu.
He who adoreth any image of the Phallic emblem of that high-souled God always obtain great prosperity by that act

Mahābhāratam Itihāsa Drona Parva, Nārāyaṇastra-mokshana Parva, Section 203

This Linga is represented with 5 faces that represent 5 aspects of SadaŚiva. Each aspect has a respective name, they are:

liṅgodbhavamūrti Sculpture, The British Museum (1955,1018.1)

Sadyojātaṃ: West Facing representing Brahma riding Swan (Hamsa), sung using Trishtubh metre.
Vāmadevāya: North Facing representing Vishnu riding Garuda, sung using Trishtubh metre.
Aghore: South/Down Facing representing Rudra riding Bull (Nandi), sung using Brihati metre.
Tatpuruṣāya: East Facing representing Surya riding horse (Ashva), sung using Gayatri metre.
īśānaḥ: Top Facing representing Resonance/Sound/Vibration riding a tortoise, sung using Brihati metre.

सद्योजातं प्रपद्यामि सद्योजाताय वै नमो नमः । भवेभवे नातिभवे भवस्व माम् । भवोद्भवाय नमः ॥ 10.17.35.17
वामदेवाय नमो ज्येष्ठाय नमः श्रेष्ठाय नमो रुद्राय नमः॒ कालाय नमः ॥ 10.18.36.15
अघोरेभ्योऽथ घोरेभ्यो घोरघोरतरेभ्यः । सर्वेभ्यस्सर्व शर्वेभ्यो नमस्ते अस्तु रुद्ररूपेभ्यः ॥ 10.19.37.19
तत्पुरुषाय विद्महे महादेवाय धीमहि । तन्नो रुद्रः प्रचोदयात् ॥ 10.20.37.20
ईशानः सर्व विद्यानामीश्वरः सर्वभूतानां ब्रह्माधिपतिर्ब्रह्मणोऽधिपतिर्ब्रह्मा शिवो मे अस्तु सदाशिवोम् ॥10.21.39.21

Kṛṣṇa Yajur Veda Taittirīya Āraṇyaka 10.17-21
Siva with garland over Linga, The British Museum (1880.346)

Liṅgodbhava= Liṅga + Ud + Bhavana (ud = to arise or sprout, bhava = expression). For those who are unable to comprehend A Jyoti (blaze/light) and an indefinite state of an ellipsoid, a form emerged to express itself. This expression is called Liṅgodbhava.

Nakṣatra : Lunar mansions

The following is the list of celestial regions of the sky (antariksha) and their respective Divinities called Adhistanam in reference to the moon’s position, explained in Kṛṣṇa Yajur Veda Taittirīya Saṃhitā 4.4.10:
Ārdrā Nakṣatra = Rudra, Krttika = Agni, Rohini = Prajāpati, Mrgashirsa = Soma, Punarvasus = Aditi, Tisya = Brhaspati, Phalgunis = Aryaman & Bhaga, Hasta = Savitr, Citra = Indra, Svati = Vayu, Vishakhas = Indra & Agni, Anuradha = Mitra, Rohini = Indra, Shravana = Visnu, Sravistha =Vasus, Shatabhisaj = Indra, Revati = Pusan, Ashviyujs = Ashvin, and Apabharanis = Yama.

Ishwara / īśvara / īśhana

One of the first references of the word īśha/īśhana/īśhava can we found in Rig Veda 1.164/168 in homage to Maruts/Rudra and the meaning of īśhana/īśhava VS16.9 is authority or ownership. This root word īśha gave rise to many titles like īśvara, Maheśvara TA10.21, Viśveśvara, Sarveśvara, Pārameśvara, and more. The word īśvara is a combination of two words “īśha” (authority) and “svara” (sovereign). This is why Rudra/Maruts are said to be immortal, self-born, self-powerful, operating of their own accord, and supremely auspicious RV 5:52,1.168. It is a common error to consider īśha a ruler or master, but the word for a ruler is Adhipa, Shasaka, Vibhu, Prabhu, and Kṣayat, hence Rishis call Rudra “kṣayat-vīrāya“, meaning the ruler and master of all heroes RV 1:114,VS16.48. The authoritative aspect towards Brahmāṇḍa is titled Ishwara (Iśvara), who is the Supreme Principle beyond kālá (time/space) like the titles “Sarveshwara” found in the Suktas/hymns of the Rig Veda and Śrī Rudram of the Yajur Veda.

Now that we have understood īśvara let us understand the famous word Uma-Maheswara. Svetasvatara Upaniṣhad (one among the 18 primary Upaniṣhads) says in Chap 4.10 & 6.7:

मायां तु प्रकृतिं विद्यान्मायिनं च महेश्वरम्‌। तस्यावयवभूतैस्तु व्याप्तं सर्वमिदं जगत्‌॥4.10
māyāṁ tu prakṛtiṁ vidyānmāyinaṁ ca maheśvaram | tasyāvayavabhūtaistu vyāptaṁ sarvamidaṁ jagat ||
तमीश्वराणां परमं महेश्वरं तं देवतानां परमं च दैवतम्‌। पतिं पतीनां परमं परस्ताद्‌विदाम देवं भुवनेशमीड्यम्‌॥

Svetasvatara Upaniṣhad 4.10 / 6.7
Uma-Maheswara in keli:vilasa

Meaning, Cit:Śakti (Vibration/energy/momentum/resonance) is the source of all that comes to be. Māyā is its nature manifesting as Prakṛti. This māyā creates countless illusory realities called Jagat. The sensory aspect of Prakṛti is called Prapancha (creation perceived by five senses and five elements). Mahat means “the highest principle”, and the authority over the Highest Principle, mightiest over any, lord and abode of all is titled Maheśwara. Uma means companion or friend who is always tranquil and bright. So, Uma always accompanies the supreme īśvara.

What constitutes “The Supreme Principle” (Maheśwara)? This can be found in Śrīmad Bhagavād Gita (The Auspicious Divine Song in Mahābhāratam), which describes Maheśwara in Chapter 13, Sloka 23 as:

उपद्रष्टाऽनुमन्ता च भर्ता भोक्ता महेश्वरः। परमात्मेति चाप्युक्तो देहेऽस्मिन्पुरुषः परः।।13.23।।
In this (body), dwells the One who is the principle authority (महेश्वरः), witness to all, the very basis of support, and the enjoyer of everything there is.

(Gita Supersite. n.d.)

The magnificence of Maheśwara is beautifully explained by Veda Vyāsa in Drona Vadha Parva, and was spectacularly explained by Bhisma and Śrī Kṛṣṇa in both Shanti Parva and Anushasika Parva of Mahābhārata Itihāsam.

Is Śiva a Destroyer?

Śiva is often translated as the destroyer, this is a linguistic error during translation. Destruction means to damage or eliminate the composition of an object, resulting in remnants that usually get dispersed; hence destruction always has a byproduct or a leftover. This is very similar to the conservation of Quantum Information. Say an apple is destroyed beyond visible recognition; whatever information that consists of, the quantum properties that make up the apple are never destroyed. Hence, the word “destroyer” creates a vague interpretation of an attacker or an assailant. In fact, Śiva is Pralaya Karaka. In the case of Pralaya (the closest word is dissolution), the object merges into the source as one (the concept of laya). This is done in 3 ways (complete article on laya): Swalpakalika Laya, Aatyantica Laya, pra:laya / mahapra:laya. At the highest level, the throbbing within the Singularity just subsides. (Swami Venkatesananda. 1993, TED-Ed Quantum Information. 2019)

In creation, everything from the largest to the tiniest aspect is cyclic (perpetual) in nature and each cycle has both manifestation and dissolution. Hence, in Nirvana Shatakam, Śrī Śankaracharya addresses Śiva as “Cidanandata Rupa” (Cit:Anandat:Rūpa) – meaning, the essence of Ananda (Supreme bliss) in Cit (Supreme Infinite Consciousness). Similarly, the Kśhetra/temple in South India “Chitambaram”, where “Cit” means Supreme Consciousness and “Ambaram” to wear as a garment. On the other hand, Viṣṇu is Jagannatha (Jagat+Natha), meaning He is the only destiny (Natha) to be reached in Jagat. As Jagadguru Shri Chandrasekharendra Sarasvatī said “Sarvam Viṣṇu:mayam jagat”, meaning when one realizes that Jagat itself is Viṣṇu, then the one realizing this ceases to exist as a Jīva and becomes Ekam (Singularity); this state of ekam is Śivam (Supreme state of Bliss), hence “Sarvam Viṣṇu:mayam jagath: Śivam”. That is why the hymn from Nārāyaṇa Sukta (Mahanarayana Upaniṣhad) of Yajur Veda says one should meditate upon Viṣṇu (the all-pervasiveness) as the means of realizing the self, which is Nārāyaṇa. Since Viṣṇu is the only thing to achieve, a Ḍharma:patni (wife) addresses her husband as Pati or Natha or Swami. In the ceremony of Vivaha (weddings) the groom is treated as Viṣṇu and the bride is treated as Lakṣmī. This very Viśvām is nothing but Viṣṇu. To depict this, we have the story of Kṣīrāsagara manthana – in which the cosmic ocean was churned and both prosperity (Lakṣmī) and anti-creation (Halāhala) emerged. Whereas Lakṣmī went to the all-pervasive preserver Viṣṇu as his consort, the Halāhala was devoured by PāramaŚiva. Hence the profound quote, “we grow as we dissolve” (no reference found for this quote).

As explained by Rishi Vaśiṣṭha to Śrī Rama during the narration of Prahalada’s events:

“Lord Viṣṇu is the self of all and whatever notion arises in him materializes immediately. His manifestation is uncaused, but it has the sole purpose of creating the infinite creatures in this universe. By the attainment of self-knowledge, lord Visnu is realized; and by the adoration of lord Viṣṇu, self-realization is attained”

(Swami Venkatesananda. 1993)

Since Śiva is Cit:Ananda, His consort is Cit:Śakti. Through Cit:Śakti, creation unfolds or propagates as Prakriti. Śiva is not a being with a specific existence or basis, as Śiva is all-inherent auspiciousness. Śiva is not a name with an origin; hence, Svayambho (self-evident auspiciousness of Cit:ananda), and “Nirguṇa Pārabrahmā Swarūpa” (meaning an abstract representation of the formless or un-manifested aspect of Pārabrahmā). Hence, the mantra from Niralamb Upaniṣhad widely recited during Yogic Kriyas as Guru Smarana:

oṃ namaḥ śivāya gurave| satccidānanda mūrtaye
niṣprapañcāya śantāya| nirālambāya tejase

 (Nishprapanchaya. 2019)
 (Nishprapanchaya. 2019)

Meaning, my salutation to my Guru who is ever auspicious. “Oṃ namaḥ śivāya” is a hymn from the Yajur Veda Taittirīya SaṃhitāŚrī Rudram. He is Cit:ananda – the joyous state – and peace beyond creation and the sensory world, who is unmanifested and illuminates beyond any source. (Nishprapanchaya. 2019)

Similarly, Rudraṣṭakam, a magnificent composition by Rishi Lomash, enclosed within Rama Charita Maānas of devout poet Tulsidas says:

Namaam-Iisham-Iishaana Nirvaanna-Ruupam
Vibhum Vyaapakam Brahma-Veda-Svaruupam |
Nijam Nirgunnam Nirvikalpam Niriiham
Cidaakaasham-Aakaasha-Vaasam Bhaje-[A]ham ||1||

Kalaatiita-Kalyaanna Kalpa-Anta-Kaarii
Sadaa Sajjana-[A]ananda-Daataa Pura-Arii |
Cid-Aananda-Samdoha Moha-Apahaarii
Prasiida Prasiida Prabho Manmatha-Arii ||6||

(Green Message Rudrastakam. n.d.)

The only witness to Śiva is Śakti (śakti); hence, She is called “Maha Pralaya Sakshini”, meaning the only witness to His Pralaya (dissolution). One should never interpret the above message to designate supremacy among various concepts of Brahman. These classifications (Iśvara, Cit:Śakti, Visnu, Siva, Devi, Brahmā) are only for our interpretation and not to draw conclusions as to who is superior. Such adamant conclusions are childish and immature and arise out of vasana and lack of Sanskara. One, with self-effort, has to explore scriptures and view Cit:Ananda and Cit:Śakti as a duality of Brahman; while Cit:Śakti creates and preserves (sustains or expands), Cit:Ananda dissolves it back to Ekam (involution or redemption). The cycle of expansion and dissolution are ever in play (keli or lila). (Bho Shambho, Shiva Shambho. 2010, Swami Venkatesananda. 1993)

Swami Sivananda of the Divine Life Society, Rishikesh said:

“The Vedantin speaks of Nirupadhika Brahman (Pure Nirguna Brahman without Maya) and Sopadhika Brahman (with Upadhi or Maya) or Saguna Brahman. It is all the same. Names only are different. It is a play of words or Sabda Jalam. People fight on word only, carry on lingual warfare, hair-splitting, logical chopping and intellectual gymnastics. In reality the essence is one. Clay is the truth. All the modifications such as pot, etc., are in name only. In Nirguna Brahman, Sakti is potential, whereas in Saguna Brahman, it is kinetic or dynamic.”

Swami Sivananda of the Divine life Society

REFERENCE ENTRY (APA Style citing)

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https://www.kamakoti.org/kamakoti/stotra/Sri%20Rudram%20Anuvakam1.html

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5 thoughts on “Śiva / Rudrā across Vedas to Itihāsa

  1. I stumbled upon this while searching if Rudra is a good name to place for my son who literally had the highest cry I have ever heard on birth with a blueish mark on his throat. The first names that came into my mind were neelkant and Rudra. This arrival is extremely informative and loved reading it. I understand there is nothing wrong in naming the child Rudra. But correct me if I misunderstood please.

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    1. It is absolutely perfect to name your child Rudra, however in current society after the Mahabharatam era, the term Rudra got denoted with fierceness whereas Shiva as mild/gentle and loving. So, a few other names to consider are Nīlakanthā, Nelagriva, Śitikaṇṭha, Srikanta. Best wishes to your newborn. Pranam.

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